1 Horn Street (Illing's) and 2 The Walk

This building which is now (April 2021) The Winslow Cafe & Bistro, was a grocer's shop for over two centuries before becoming a restaurant in the 1970s. It was run for well over a century by two generations of Frenchs and then two generations of Illings. Part of it is now a separate dwelling (2 The Walk).

Staff standing in front of shop
E.A. Illing and staff outside the shop. Click on the image for a larger version.

According to its Grade II listing (1984):

Includes No. 2 The Walk. Restaurant and house. Early C18, altered and refronted mid C19. Colourwashed render, rendered band courses to left gable and rendered parapet with band courses and paired brackets to front. Old tile roof to front range with coped ogee brick gable and stack to right. Rear roofs are of slate. Front range has 2 storeys and attic, and 2 bays. Shop front with wooden dentil cornice on fluted Tuscan pilasters to frames. Attic has hipped dormers with 3-light barred casements. 2 storey wing to rear has 2 bays at slight angle with canted bay windows with C19 sashes and pilasters to frames. Attic has hipped dormers with 3-light barred casements. 2-story wing to rear has 2 bays at slight angle with canted bay windows to ground floor. First floor has tripartitite sash to right, paired casement in left bay and hayloft door with winch opening above to left. Central door in rendered porch with simple cornice and parapet. Some timber framing inside.

It appears that 1 Horn Street was originally part of the same plot as 3 Horn Street and 4 The Walk; click here for some suggestions about the origin of the whole property.

Plan of 1-3 Horn Street and 4 The Walk
The map shows the site of 1-3 Horn Street and 4 The Walk in 1880 (left), 1979 (centre) and a recent aerial view (right). They appear to have been built on one plot of land filling the corner made by Horn Street and The Walk. Kennish Close has now been built on the former garden.

Richard West (1699-1765) was in business as a grocer and tallow-chandler by 1733, and may therefore be responsible for building 1 Horn Street or at least turning it into a shop. By the time he made his will he described himself as a yeoman, and had let the shop to Goldsworth Dudley.

1764 (proved 1765): will of Richard West
He bequeathed to his son Roger West:
All that my Messuage or Tenement Situate in Winslow aforesaid and now in the Occupation of Goldsworth Dudley together also with all houses Outhouses Edifices Buildings Barns Stables Yards Gardens and Backsides with their and every of their Appurt(enance)s thereunto belonging 

1774: manor court
Surrender: Roger West, late of Winslow but now of Brooks Market, St Andrew Holborn, tallow chandler & Martha his wife
Admission: Goldsworth Dudley of Winslow, grocer & tallow chandler
Messuage in Winslow now in the occupation of Goldsworth Dudley. Rent 4d, fine 5s.

1779: will of Goldsworth Dudley, grocer & tallow-chandler
He bequeathed all his real estate to his wife Mary Dudley (nee Fox) subject to legacies to his children.

1779: fire insurance
Mary Dudley insured her "dwelling house stable and barns adjoining ... brick and tiled" and contents for £400.

In 1780 Mary married John Baseley, farmer of Swanbourne. According to fire insurance and Land Tax records (1781) she let the grocery business to Thomas Deverell.

1784: Northampton Mercury, 1 Nov
WANTED immediately, A MAN that understands the TALLOW-CHANDLERY Business; likewise to assist in the Soap Trade occasionally. A Character from his last Place will be required.
Apply to Thomas Deverell, Grocer, Chandler, and Ironmongery, in Winslow, Bucks.
N.B. An APPRENTICE is wanted.

Thomas Deverell must have left before 1792.

1792: manor court
Surrender: Mary Baseley of Swanbourne widow
Admission John Redding Holland and Frances his wife
All that Messuage or Tenement situate standing and being in Winslow aforesaid in a certain street there called Great Horn Street late in the tenure or occupation of Goldsworth Dudley deceased and now in the tenure or occupation of John Redding Holland and Frances his wife

In 1793 the Hollands mortgaged the property to Joseph Key Baily of Shenley gentleman for £100 + 4.5% interest.

1795: directory
Holland, John, Grocer & Ironmonger

By 1804 John Holland had moved to Aylesbury and let the business to Frances' brothers William and Robert Ivatts.

1804: will of John Redding Holland (proved 1805)

1805: manor court
John Redding Holland late of Aylesbury Grocer & Tallow Chandler held a messuage in Great Horn Street now in the occupation of William Ivatts.  He died since the last court having surrendered it to the use of his will and by his will dated 31 March 1804 he devised it unto his Friends James Ivatts of Aylesbury Cordwainer & Benjamin Houghton Rickett of the same Gentleman“ after the decease or Marriage of his Wife Frances Holland or in her Life time if necessary as therein mentioned to sell and dispose of the aforesaid premises in manner and for the purposes therein mentioned”. 

They immediately sold the property to William Ivatts and Robert Ivatts of Winslow grocers & tallow chandlers, who then mortgaged it to James Read of Bottle Claydon dairyman for £200 + 5% interest.

1806: will of William Ivatts
Leaves to his brother Robert “All my Share Right and Title of a House situate at Winslow in the said County wherein we now dwell”.

1812: will of Frances Holland (proved 1833)
She was living in Winslow with her brother Robert Ivatts.

1820: manor court
Robert Ivatts mortgaged the property to Frances Holland (his sister) for £400 + 5% interest.

1821: will of Robert Ivatts
I give and devise unto my esteemed friend Francis Goode of Buckingham in the said County of Bucks Gentleman and my two Nephews Benjamin Holland and Thomas Ivatts (Son of my late Brother Thomas Ivatts and Alice his Wife) All that my Messuage  or Tenement situate standing and being in Winslow aforesaid wherein I now dwell [on trust to sell it]

1822: special court, 1 May 
Surrender: Frances Holland of Aylesbury widow of John Redding Holland
Admission: Thomas Fleet of Maidenhead Thicket, Berks, gentleman
Consideration: £589 14s
All that Messuage or Tenement situate standing and being in Winslow in the County of Bucks in a certain street there called Great Horn Street then late in the tenure or occupation of Goldsworth Dudley deceased and then in the tenure or occupation of John Redding Holland with the appurtenances  ... Now in the occupation of Reuben Stuchbery.

1823: directory
Stuchbery, Reuben grocer Great Horn Street

1826: manor court
The jurors were ordered before 1 Dec to “view the public highway leading from Great Horn Street in the Town of Winslow to a public footpath leading towards Hanging Stile and examine whether any nuisances or obstructions have been there committed”.  They returned “that certain encroachments have been made thereon by the owners or occupiers for the time being of the house situate at the corner of Great Horn Street aforesaid now in the occupation of Thomas Stuchbery (vizt) by a late erection of posts with a circular iron rail at the top thereof enclosing a part of the said public highway under the side window of the said house and also by enclosing many years since with brick work and a wooden cap thereto a square piece of such public highway for and using the same as an enclosure for dung at the side of the said house near adjoining the first mentioned encroachment”

1830: Pigot's Directory
Grocer & tea dealer: Stuchbery Thomas (and tallow chandler) Great Horn st

1830: Northampton Mercury, 6 Feb

To Ironmongers, Grocers, Tallow-Chandlers, &c.

AN old-established BUSINESS, embracing the three Branches named above.  The Premises are low-rented, replete with every Convenience, and well calculated for carrying on a good Trade;  no Good-will required, but the Stock and Fixtures taken at a fair Valuation.- Immediate Possession will be given.- Apply on the Premises to T. STUCHBERY, Winslow, Bucks; B. STUCHBERY, Bridge Street, Northampton;  or to J. FLEET, 141 Fenchurch Street, London.- Letters Post paid.
    A steady, obliging YOUTH, from a Dissenter’s Family, who has some Knowledge of the Tea and Grocery Business, and wishes Improvement, may hear of a Situation, by applying as above.
   Feb. 5th, 1830.

1832: Land Tax
Thomas Fleet (owner), Jas W Brinkler (occupier): house etc 7s 9d

1832: Oxford Journal, 26 May

To Grocers, Tallow Chandlers, &c.

To be LET, with immediate possession, eligibly situated in the Market Place, in the town of Winslow, Bucks, - A commodious DWELLING HOUSE, in excellent repair, and very EXTENSIVE PREMISES (in which the above joint business has been carried on a great numbers of years);  comprising parlour, sitting room, kitchen, large and comfortable sleeping rooms, excellent shop, counting house, extensive warehouses and cellars, candle house, fitted up with every requisite for that branch of trade, which, together with the Shop Fixtures, Stock in Trade, &c. (which is not large) are to be taken to at a fair valuation.
   For further particulars, and to treat for the same, apply (if by letter, post paid) to Samuel Foster, auctioneer, Bicester.
N.B. The above presents an excellent opportunity to any person, with a moderate capital, wishing to embark in the above branches.

1832: Oxford Journal, 16 June

To Grocers, Tallow Chandlers, &c.

Under an assignment for the benefit of Creditors, on Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday next (if necessary), the 19th, 20th, and 21st of June inst. on the premises of Mr. James Brinkler, of Winslow, Bucks,- The whole of the STOCK in TRADE, SHOP and WAREHOUSE FIXTURES, HOUSEHOLD FURNITURE, &c.; comprising upwards of 250 lbs. of tea and coffee, 40 dozen of brushes, 20 dozen of broom heads, 5 half hogsheads of vinegar, half a puncheon of molasses, upwards of a ton of Russia tallow, 150 lbs. of seasoned rush, 80 lbs. of candle cotton, 2 casks of mustard, half a ton of salt, 12 cwt. of cheese, Kent hops, mould and store candles, train, palm, seal, and other oils, gunpowder and shot, rice, fruit, bacon, japan liquid and paste blacking, a large quantity of shop paper, tobacco and snuff, and a great variety of other articles;  an excellent cast iron  candle press, dipping mould and weighing machine, large melting copper, rods, blocks, and every utensil used in the candle trade;  two excellent counters, two large beams and scales, several pairs of smaller ditto, brass and iron weights, 18 tea canisters, nests of drawers, tobacco and snuff jars, coffee and pepper mills (with wheels), &c.

The Household Furniture consists of bedsteads and furnitures, feather and flock beds, wool mattresses, mahogany wardrobe and chests of drawers, mahogany tables, cane-bottomed and Windsor chairs, chimney and swing glasses, Bath stoves and kitchen range, brewing copper, iron-bound casks, &c.- The whole must be sold without reserve.

Catalogues may be had on the premises;  at the Inns in Aylesbury, Buckingham, and Winslow, at Smith’s Printing Office, and of the auctioneer, Bicester.
May be viewed each morning of sale till Ten o’clock, at which time (on account of the number of lots) the auction will commence.

This seems to be when Joshua Lewin French (1809-84), son of the wealthy Congregationalist William French of Buckingham, took over the business, although he did not buy the premises until later.

1841: Census
Joshua L. French, grocer & ironmonger
Elijah W. French, grocer shopman [he later took over the bakery at 10 Horn Street]
+ shopman, 1 male servant, 1 female servant

1843: manor court
Surrender: Thomas Fleet of Maidenhead Thicket, Berks, gentleman & Mary his wife
Admission: Joshua Lewin French of Winslow ironmonger
Consideration: £500

1851: Census
Horn Street

Joshua Lewin French Head married 42 Grocer & ironmonger b. Buckingham
Martha do Wife married 33 do wife b. Buckingham
William Henry do Son   8 Scholar b. Winslow
Joshua Lewin do Son   7 Scholar do
Agnes Annie do Dau   3   do
Elizabeth Roads Servant unm 21 House servant b. Great Horwood
Edward Pigott Porter unm 36 Porter b. Winslow

1853: Musson & Craven's Directory
French, Joshua Lewin grocer hop seed & colour merchant & furnishing ironmonger Horn Street

1856: sale of 3 Horn Street & 4 The Walk
J.L. French purchased 4 The Walk in 1861, but it wasn't sold to E.A. Illing with 1 Horn Street (see below).

People standing in snow
This photo was taken in April 1908. The people are standing outside 4 The Walk. In the foreground (right) is 2 The Walk, which was part of 1 Horn Street and probably put into the form you can see here by J.L. French.

1861: Oxfordshire Telegraph, 9 Jan
J. L. FRENCH, Grocer, and General and Furnishing Ironmonger. WINSLOW.
Begs to call attention to his New and Well Assorted Stock of Petrolenue [sic] Lamps, comprising the Newest Designs (direct from the sole Patentee,) varying in price from the Cottagers’ Lamp at 1s. 6d., to the Handsome Drawing Room ditto, at One Guinea.
  The Public should bear in mind, that for the cost of about a Farthing an Hour, one of these Lamps will give the light of Two Mould Candles; and that, by the use of them, the grease dropping from Candles is entirely obviated.  Two gentlemen, supplied by J. L. F., have entirely discontinued the use of Candles in favour of the Petrolenue Lamp.  Young’s Patent Paraffin (also direct,) of finest quality, 3s 6d. per gallon; 2nd quality, 3s.
  A considerable stock of Furnishing Ironmongery also on hand.  Gardner’s and Biddle’s Turnip Cutters in Stock; also Hornsby’s, Howard’s, and Ransome’s Implements, those of either maker procured at list prices.
Hops, Seeds, and Colours.  Fine Old Leicester Cheese.

1861: Census
Horn Street

Joshua L. French Head married 52 Ironmonger, grocer &c.
employing 4 men & 1 boy
b. Buckingham
William Henry do Son unm 18 Assistant & rifle volunteer b. Winslow
Joshua Lewin do Son   17 do          do do
Hepzibah Marks Servant unm 20 General servant b. Great Horwood

1861: Oxfordshire Telegraph, 8 May
Begs to inform the farming public that he has now on hand a well assorted stock of Farming Implements for the season, by different makers, comprising Ransome’s, Howard’s and Hornsby’s Patent Ploughs, Howard’s Light and Heavy Harrows, Cartwright’s Chain Harrows, Drills by Hensman, Leighton, Smith’s Patent Horse Hoe, Howard’s Patent Horse Hoe, &c.  Clover, Turnip, Swede and Mangel Worsel Seeds, Garden Seeds of all kinds.  Also a large stock of general and furnishing Ironmongery Cart Harness and Plough Traces, Digging Forks, Spades and Shovels, Cutlery, Guns and Pistols, Electro Plate, (Spoons, Forks, Tea Pots, &c.,) Carpenters Tools, &c, &c.  Hops, Oils, Colours, Sacks, &c.
   Winslow, May 1861.

Billhead of J.L. French
Bill from J.L. French to Mr Denchfield, 1863

1864: Post Office Directory
French, Joshua Lewin general ironmonger grocer & provision dealer Horn Street

1867: Bucks Herald, 10 August
FOR REAPING MACHINES and other IMPLEMENTS, by all Makers, also for any article in either of the above lines.

In 1870 W.H. French the son moved the ironmonger's part of the business to new premises at 3 Market Square.

1871: Census
Horn Street

Joshua L. French Head married 62 Grocer employs 2 shopmen & porter b. Buckingham
Martha do Wife married 53 do wife b. Buckingham
Agnes do Dau unm 23 do daughter b. Winslow
Sarah do  Niece unm 23 no occupation do 
Rosa Capel Servant unm 19 General servant (dom) b. Thornborough

1876: Harrod's Directory
French, Joshua L. jun., grocer and Postmaster, Horn Street

J.L. French jr took over the grocery business at 1 Horn Street in the early 1870s but in about 1879 he moved to become a grocer at Ashford, Kent, in premises belonging to his father, leaving the Winslow shop under the overall management of his father who had retired to The Old Tanyard, Horn Street. J.L. jr was a china and glass dealer at Ashford in 1891 and also a Congregational preacher (he preached at Winslow in 1888). He was recorded in the 1901 Census at Rowley Regis, Staffs.

1881: Census
Horn Street

Caroline Simonds Servant unm 44 Housekeeper b. Mursley
Ebenezer Illing Servant unm 18 Grocer's assistant b. Lt Horwood
William Topham Servant unm 20 do  b. St Neots

1882: Enfranchisement (i.e. conversion from copyhold to freehold) of J.L. French's property, 20 Dec

1883: will of Joshua Lewin French sr (proved 1884)
He left to each of his two sons William Henry and Joshua Lewin jr "one undivided moiety or half part of the house shop and premises and appurtenances thereto in Horn Street in Winslow aforesaid in which the grocery and other businesses are now carried on by me [and] one individual moiety or half part of the messuage or tenement and premises and appurtenances thereto in Winslow aforesaid which I purchased of Richard Baldwin [4 The Walk] ... and of ... my stock in trade and book debts"

1887: Kelly's Directory
French & Son, grocers, Horn Street

Soon after this W.H. French sold both his businesses to the men who managed them, and E.A. Illing bought the grocer's.

Shop decorated with bunting
The photo shows the shop, now E.A. Illing & Sons, decked out for the 1935 Silver Jubilee, with the fire engine in front

1891: Census
Horn Street

Ebenezer Alfred Illing Head married 28 Grocer b. Lt Horwood
Elizabeth Ellen Illing Wife married 23   b. West Derby, Lancs
John Watson Harris Assistant single 23 Grocer's assistant b. Steeple Aston
Rose Ann Ward Servant single 20 General servant b. North Marston

E.A. Illing, who came from a Little Horwood farming family, also rented Magpie Farm from before 1897 (see Winslow Hall sale) and eventually bought it.

Billhead of E.A. Illing 1894
Bill from E.A. Illing to John Grace, 1894

1899: E.A. Illing bought 4 The Walk in the sale of W.H. French's property

1901: Census
Horn Street

Ebenezer Alfred Illing Head married 38 Grocer & farmer b. Lt Horwood
Elizabeth Ellen do  Wife married 33   b. West Derby, Lancs
Alfred John do  Son   9   b. Winslow
Herbert Edward do  Son   7   do 
Sydney Arthur do  Son   5   do 
William Ernest do  Son   1   do 
Gwendoline Ethel Morgan Visitor single 22 Lady nurse b. Chepstow
Kate ?Eliza Smith Governess single 36 Governess b. Ipswich
Ellen Bilton Servant single 22 General servant b. Cambridge

Illing family in garden
The Illing family c.1910, apparently in the garden behind 1-3 Horn Street

1911: Census
Horn Street: 8 rooms

Ebenezer Alfred Illing Head married 48 Grocer & farmer b. Lt Horwood
Elizabeth Ellen do  Wife married 43 married 20 years
4 children
b. West Derby, Lancs
Alfred John do  Son   19 Grocer b. Winslow
Herbert Edward do  Son   17 do  do 
Sydney Arthur do  Son   15 Attends school do 
William Ernest do  Son   11 do  do 
Marianne Higgs Servant single 18 General servant b. Loughton

Illing & Sons bill head
The business became E.A. Illing & Sons

1914: Assessment (TNA, IR58/2347 no.132)
Situation              Horn Str Winslow
Description         Dwelling house & shop only ground it stands on
Gross Value: Buildings   £39
Rateable Value: Buildings             £31 - 5
Occupier &  Owner     E.A. Illing     
Interest of Owner          Freehold
Estimated Rent            £55 if owner kept In repair but the latter would cost £15 per annum
Outgoings – Land Tax, £ 1 – 1 - 9               Paid by                 Owner who is only liable for 10/10
Fixed Charges, Easements, Common Rights & Restrictions           
Right of way with adjoining cottage Drains & see (11)
Former Sales      Dates                    May 2 1884
Consideration                                This was bought at a price including goodwill & other properties
Subsequent Expenditure               About £300 structural repairs & alterations                               
Site Value Deductions Claimed   Yes                                
[stamp] 30 NOV 1914
[stamp] 29 JAN 1915
Particulars, description and note made on inspection     
Brick & Slate Shop, Office, Cellar  Sugar Warehouse
Din(ing), Draw(ing), 3 bed & attic Rooms
Kit(chen), Scullery, Pantry
7 poles                                                                                    
Valuation – Market Value of Fee Simple in possession of whole property in its present condition  £765
Deduct Market Value of Site under similar circumstances, but if divested of structures, timber, fruit trees, and other things growing on the land
32ft frontage                                                                                                                   [red] £ 45
Difference Balance, being portion of market value attributable to structures, timber &c       [red] £720

Assessment no.134
Situation              The Walk Winslow
Description         Old Stable. Now used as rough warehouse
Gross Value: Buildings   £3 - 3
Rateable Value: Buildings             £2 - 10
Occupier & Owner     E.A. Illing
Interest of Owner      Enfranchised Copyhold
Estimated Rent                 £2 – 10 - 0
Outgoings – Land Tax, £  1s/ -    Paid by                 Owner
Fixed Charges, Easements, Common Rights & Restrictions           
Sewer runs under it
Former Sales      Dates                    Feb 11 1895
Consideration                                    Bought with other properties
Subsequent Expenditure             New roof &c £16                                
Site Value Deductions Claimed   Yes                                
[stamp] SEP 30 1914
Includes 106
Particulars, description and note made on inspection     
Brick & Tile Building
Old Stable. used as rough warehouse
600 sq feet                                                                                    
Valuation – Market Value of Fee Simple in possession of whole property in its present condition   £45
Deduct Market Value of Site under similar circumstances, but if divested of structures, timber, fruit trees, and other things growing on the land  £ 5
Difference Balance, being portion of market value attributable to structures, timber &c    £40

1921: Census
Horn Street: 4 rooms

Alfred John Illing Head married 29y 11m Grocer & farmer (employer) b. Winslow
Alice Illing Wife married 30y Home duties b. Swanbourne
Alfred Illing married Alice Gadsden in 1920
Marion Jean Illing Dau   under 1m   b. Winslow

1939: Kelly's Directory
Illing, E.A. & Sons, grocers, Horn street & farmers, Magpie farm. T.N. 69.

The Illings also acquired 3 Horn Street, next door. In 1939, Ebenezer and Ellen Illing were living there, and the occupants of no.1 were Sarah Higgins (b.1891), widow, and her daughters Evelyn (b.1919, later Cranwell), shop assistant, and Vera (b.1926).

1954: death of Ebenezer A. Illing of 3 Horn Street, aged 90, on 6 May.

1958: death of Elizabeth E. Illing of 3 Horn Street, aged 90, on 2 March.

Please note that there is some confusion about which house is 1 Horn Street. The adjacent, separate house divided into two is no.1A (Old Millfield House) and no.3. In some places including the Bucks Heritage Portal you may find another 1 Horn Street which is now officially 5A Market Square (Horn House).

Copyright 22 May, 2023