The road from Wendover to Buckingham was turnpiked in 1721 by a private Act of Parliament (7 George I Ch. 24). The original road did not go through Winslow. In fact it left Aylesbury by the Bicester Road and turned just after the Stone Bridge to pass through Steeple Claydon and Padbury on its way to Buckingham.

Read Ed Grimsdale's article: Buckingham's lost route to Aylesbury

It's not clear if the following incident took place on the way to Edgcott, Bucks, or Edgcote, Warws.

London Journal, 21 Aug 1731
Northampton, August 16 Our Letters from Winslow in Bucks advise, that a Son-in-Law of Mr. Watson of Edgcote in that County, a great Grazier, and who lives, in Warwickshire, was, on his Return from Winslow Fair, near East-Claydon, on Tuesday the 10th Instant, between six and seven in the Evening, stopt and inhumanly cut and abused in such a manner, that 'tis thought he cannot recover, and afterward robb'd of above £200 by two Highwaymen, every well mounted, the one on a grey Horse, and the other on a black one

However, when Henrietta Howard, Countess of Suffolk, visited Stowe in 1735, she made her journey home to Marble Hill (Twickenham) via Winslow. This confirms the suggestion by Peter Gulland (The Toll Roads of Buckinghamshire 1706-1881, p.101) that the Wendover and Buckingham Trust started to encourage traffic to use the route through Winslow from 1721.

Lady Suffolk to Mr Berkeley [her husband], 2 Sep. 1735
Order the horses to be at Winslow for Saturday. I shall set out very early from Lord Cobham's. The saddle-horses must be at the same place, and all there, I hope, on Friday night.

Mr Berkeley to Lady Suffolk
I have ordered a coach and a set of horses and saddle-horses to be at Winslow on Friday night, and hope to be blessed with your company on Saturday, though it is a long journey without another relay.

Letters to and from Henrietta, Countess of Suffolk, vol.II (London, 1824), pp.141-2

A "Winslow Carrier" was operating to and from London by 1740, when he transported wine and glasses to Claydon House. An Act of Parliament of 1742 (15 George II Ch. 5) renewed the powers of the Wendover to Buckingham Turnpike Trustees and stated that the road passed through Whitchurch and Winslow. A new stone bridge was built at Padbury. There was a regular coach service between London and Winslow from c.1750:

A Correct List of all the Stage-Coaches and Carriers (London, 1750?)
Winslow: waggon, Oxford arms, Warwick-lane, Fridays
Bell, Warwick-lane, Thursdays, Saturdays

It was claimed that the original Acts of Parliament did not allow the Trustees to charge high enough tolls to maintain the road:

Journal of the House of Commons, 13 March 1766
Mr Lowndes reported from the Committee to whom the Petition of the Clergy Gentry and others of His Majesty's Subjects residing near and passing through the Highways and Roads between Wendover and Buckingham in the County of Bucks, whose Names are thereunto subscribed, was referred. That the Committee had examined the Matter of the said Petition: and had directed him to report the same, as it appeared to them, to the House; and he read the Report in his Place; and afterwards delivered it in at the Clerk's Table: Where the same was read and is as followeth, viz.
To prove the Allegations of the said Petition, Three Acts of Parliament for repairing the said Roads were read: And
Mr Samuel Yeates being examined said That the Trustees appointed by the said several Acts have constantly applied the Monies collected by virtue of the said Acts towards repairing the said Road; yet by reason of the Small Toll and the excessive Weights drawn on the said Road the same is not in good Repair nor can possibly be made so by the Monies to be collected by virtue of the said Acts, unless they be further continued and the Trustees impowered to take additional Tolls and to borrow a further Sum of Money on the Credit thereof.
Being further examined he said That when the Accounts of the said Trustees were last settled, £1,000 appeared to be owing on the Credit of the said Tolls and no more than £11 4s 3d remaining in the Treasurer’s Hands; and that the said Acts have been found defective in many Particulars.
Ordered that Leave be given to bring in a Bill …  And that Mr Lowndes, Mr Drake, the Earl Verney and Mr Grenville do prepare and bring in the same.

As a result of the Turnpike it became possible to travel from Winslow to London in one day:

Jackson’s Oxford Journal (31 Oct 1767)

BUCKINGHAM  Old  Stage-Coach
      In ONE DAY
Leaves flying on Monday the 2d of November, for the Winter Season; sets out from Lord Cobham’s Arms at Buckingham, every Monday, and Friday Morning, at four o’Clock to the Bull Inn in Holborn, London; and returns from thence every Wednesday and Saturday Morning at five o’Clock.  The fare to Buckingham 10s 6d, to Winslow 9s. to Aylesbury 7s. to Wendover 6s.   Outside Passengers and Children in Lap to pay half Price.   Each Inside Passenger is allowed twenty Pounds Luggage, all above to pay 1d. a Pound.

Stops at the Three Pigeons at Winslow, the Cock at Whitchurch, the White Hart at Aylesbury, the Maidenhead at Wendover, the George at Missenden, the Crown at Amersham, the Swan at Chalfont, the Tuns at Uxbridge, and the Green Man and Still the Corner of Swallow-street, Oxford Road.

Breakfasts in going up to London at Aylesbury, and dines at Chalfont; in returning, breakfasts at Chalfont, and dines at Aylesbury.  Performed by
      JOHN ALLISON of Chalfont, and
      JOHN WATSON, of Buckingham.

The London Directory (1768) listed these services to Winslow:

Winslow carrier. George, Snow hill, T. morning 4, S. morning 10; Bell, Warwick-lane, T. Th. S. morning 11; Saracen's Head, Snow hill, F. S. morning 10.

Oxford Journal, 3 April 1773

Banbury, Buckingham, and Winslow MACHINE, In One Day, for the Summer Season,
BEGINS flying on Monday the 5th of April. Sets out from the Red-Lion Inn in Banbury every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday morning at Three o’Clock to the Bell and Crown Inn in Holborn ; and returns from thence every Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday at Four o’Clock. – The Fare to Banbury 16 s, to Aynho 15 s, to Buckingham 12 s, to Winslow 10 s, to Whitchurch 9 s, to Aylesbury 8 s. Outside Passengers and Children in Lap Half Price ; and so in Proportion to any part of the Road. Inside Passengers to be allowed 14 lb. for Luggage, all above to pay One Penny per lb.
Performed by JOHN LOMAX, Bell and Crown, Holborn,
JOHN HILL, White-Hart, Aylesbury, and
EDWARD STAMP, Buckingham.

Stops at the Plough at Atterbury, Red-Lion at Aynho, Barley-Mow at Byard’s Green, White-Hart at Tingewick, Lord Cobham’s Arms at Buckingham, Three Pigeons at Winslow, to take up and set down Passengers and Parcels.
The Proprietors will not be answerable for any Money, Bills or Plate, unless entered and paid for as such.
Stops, going in and coming out of London, at the Green-Man-And Still, the Corner of Swallow-Street, Oxford-Road.

The stagecoach service expanded with more trips and the latest vehicles.

Oxford Journal, 27 Oct 1781

Warrington, Kingbury, Banbury, Buckingham and
Winslow C O A C H E S.
THREE TIMES a WEEK for the winter season.

Set out on Tuesday, the 30th of October 1781, from the Bell and Crown Inn, in Holborn, London, at Five o’Clock in the Morning every Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday; and from the White Swan Inn, in Warwick, at Seven o’Clock in the morning the same Days;  lie at the Lord Cobham’s Arms, at Buckingham, and return to the above Inns every Wednesday, Friday, and Sunday Morning at the same Hours. — The Fare to Warwick, One Pound Three Shillings; and so in Proportion for any Part of the Road. — Inside Passengers to be allowed 14lb. for Luggage, all above to pay One Penny per Pound.

Performed by LOMAX, HILL, STAMP, and PRATT.

Stops at the King’s Head, at Wellesbourn; at the Red Lion, at Kington; and dines at the Red Lion, at Banbury.
Likewise stops at the Plough, at Adderbury; the Red Lion, at Aynho; the Barley-Mow, on Bayard’s Green; White Hart, at Tingewick; and the Three Pigeons, at Winslow, to take up and set down Passengers and Parcels.
The Proprietors will not be answerable for Money, Plate, Rings, Jewels, Bank-Notes, &c. unless entered as such, and paid for accordingly. — The above Coaches also stop, going in and coming out of London, at the Green Man and Still, the corner of Swallow-Street, Oxford-Road.

Oxford Journal, 7 Dec 1782

Four Times a Week for the Winter Season.

THE POST COACH, sets out from the Red Lion Inn, in Banbury, every Tuesday and Thursday Morning, at Five o'Clock, to the Bell and Crown Inn, in Holborn, London; and returns from thence every Wednesday and Friday Morning, at the same Hour.

THE MACHINE, sets out from the above Inn, in Banbury, every Thursday and Saturday at Noon; lies at Buckingham, and sets out from thence every Sunday and Friday Morning, at Five o'Clock, to the above Inn, in London; and returns every Tuesday and Saturday Morning, at Six o'Clock; lies at Buckingham that Night, and arrives at Banbury every Wednesday and Sunday Morning. — Fare as usual. — Inside Passengers, to be allowed 14 lb. for Luggage, all above to pay One Penny per Pound.

Performed by LOMAX, HILL, and STAMP.

The Proprietors will not be answerable for any Money, Bills, Plate, or any other Goods, more than the Value of Five Pounds, unless entered as such, and paid for accordingly.

Shipton BridgeIn 1792, to deal with flooding at Shipton Bridge, a causeway was built up to 10 feet above ground level on both sides of the bridge (Gulland, Toll Roads of Bucks, p.102). See photo on right.

Also in 1792, a weighing engine to check for overloaded wagons was installed where Sheep Street meets Little Horwood Road (now commemorated by Chequers End, which was originally going to be called Check'us End). It was moved to Aylesbury by 1794 (Gulland, Toll Roads of Bucks, p.108).

Travel was still a dangerous business, because of both highwaymen and dangerous driving.

Northampton Mercury, 17 Jan 1774
On Monday the 3rd instant, between Six and Seven in the Evening, Mr. John Mayne, of Winslow, Bucks, was stopped on the Highway, near Winslow aforesaid, by a Footpad, who laid hold of his Horse’s Bridle; Mr. Mayne, clapping Spurs to his Horse, got released from him, immediately after which the Villain fired, and wounded the Horse in such a Manner, that ‘tis thought he cannot recover.   Happily, Mr. Mayne received no Hurt.

Hampshire Telegraph, 9 Dec 1799
Birmingham and Warwick Mercury Post Coach, with a Guard.  Sets out every afternoon, and reaches Birmingham next day at noon.  Passes by Warwick, Knowle, Kineton, Bambury [sic], Tingewick, Buckingham, Winslow, Aylesbury, Tring, and Berkhampstead.  A Guard.

Read Ed Grimsdale's article on an accident to the Winslow stage-coach in 1817.

Produce, particularly butter, could be taken to London by road via Aylesbury.

Oxford Journal, 18 Aug 1781
TO be SOLD.- Two old-accustomed COMMON STAGE WAGGONS, from Winslow and Aylesbury, in the County of Bucks, to London;  with all the Horses Tackling and Geers [sic] belonging thereto, the Property of Mr. John Bull, of Aylesbury, and lately belonging to Mr. Tho. Rogers; together with two other Waggons, a Cart, and all the Flats and Implements used in the Carrying Business. - The Purchaser of the Waggons, &c. may enter on the Carring [sic] Business immediately.
For Particulars apply to Mr. John Bull or to Mr. Parker, Attorney at Law, at Aylesbury.

The Buckingham and Winslow Butter Waggons were put up for sale by the proprietor, Thomas Ingram, in 1812.

In 1819 an advert in the Oxford Journal (18 Dec) for the Bicester Regulator coach also states:

The Winslow Regulator favourite Coach as usual.

In 1819 Winslow was on the daily mail coach route from London to Kidderminster.

Morning Post, 13 March 1819

BULL and MOUTH INN, London,  March 10, 1819. - NEW MAIL COACH to KIDDERMINSTER, &c. - The Public are respectfully informed, that a NEW ROYAL MAIL COACH will commence running every Evening, from the above Inn, on MONDAY next, the 15th instant.   It will set off at a quarter past Seven (Sundays at a quarter before Seven); call at The King’s Arms, Holborn-bridge;  also at the Green Man and Still, Oxford-street, which it will leave at Eight o’clock (Sundays at half-past Seven), through Edgeware, Stanmore, Watford, Two Waters, Berkhampstead, Tring, Aylesbury, Winslow, Buckingham, Brackley, Banbury, Kineton, Welsbourn, Stratford-on-Avon, Alcester, and Bromsgrove, will arrive at Kidderminster before Two o’clock the following Afternoon. - The Royal Mail Coach to Birmingham every Evening as usual.  Also light Four-Inside Coaches to Birmingham, Shrewsbury, and Holyhead, every Afternoon at Three, Five, and Seven o’clock. - The Public are likewise respectfully informed, that a new, light Four-inside Day Coach to Cheltenham and Gloucester, through Uxbridge, High Wycombe, Oxford, Witney, Burford, and North-leach, sets off from the above Inn at a quarter before Six in the Morning, arrives at Cheltenham the same Evening at Seven, and at Gloucester soon after Eight. - A light Four-inside Coach to Gloucester, Hereford, and South Wales, through Oxford and Cheltenham, every Afternoon at One o’clock, as usual. - Coaches to Oxford, every Afternoon at One, Two, Three, Five, and Seven o’clock; also Monday, Wednesday, and Friday Momings at a quarter before Six.                                       J. WILLAN and CO, Proprietors.

Take notice, that the Proprietors will not be answerable for any Package containing Cash, Bank Notes, Bills, Jewels, Plate, Watches, Lace, Silks, or Muslins, however small the value, nor for any other Package with which its contents shall exceed five pounds in value, if lost or damaged, unless the value be specified, and an Insurance paid over and above the common Carriage when delivered at the above Offices, or to any of their Offices or Agents in the different parts of the Kingdom.

There were several improvements made to the road, such as the 1824 diversion in Swanbourne between the 48th and 49th milestones. This saved travellers the inconvenience of passing through Holcombe Gutter, but necessitated the rebuilding of the Neptune Inn on a different site. In 1822 the road was realigned in Shipton, so that it curved into Winslow instead of having a right-angled turn.

In 1835, the Wendover to Buckingham Turnpike Trustees surveyed four different routes for a better road through Winslow. Each of them involved improving Shipton Bridge. Two of the routes took a line from the bridge to the Market Square and would have necessitated the demolition of part of the Bell Inn. Another route involved the construction of a new road bypassing Winslow on its eastern side. This route, had it been adopted, would have given Winslow a bypass 100 years before such a route was first planned by Buckinghamshire County Council and 150 years before the County Council plan was dropped as too expensive and disruptive. See S. Eveleigh, "Bridges on the turnpike road from Wendover to Buckingham", Records of Bucks 52 (2012), 191-202.

An Estimate of the expense of effecting each of the proposed alterations in the Wendover & Buckingham Turnpike Road in the Parishes of Winslow and Swanbourne

No. 1 Improvement of the present Road at Shipton Hill
This will require
One rood of Land to widen the Road
Nine chains of fencing
The House occupied by Keys to be taken down
The Hill to be lowered and the Valley to be raised as will appear by reference to the Section No.1
And a covering of Gravel nine inches thick on 23 chains of Road (exclusive of the old Materials).
The whole expense of completing this line of Road (exclusive of the repair of the Bridge) will be Four Hundred Pounds

No.2 New line from and Angle in the Road in the Parish of Swanbourne to the Market Place in Winslow
In this line will be
72 chains of new Road
4a 2r 0p of Land to be purchased (exclusive of the Bell and Workhouse premises)
138 chains of fencing (exclusive of Do. And Do.)
Several Gates into the respective Fields, and Culverts across the Road
The Hill to be Lowered and the Valleys raised nearly as in Section 3
Part of the Workhouse to be taken down and rebuilt, and the Garden divided
And a considerable part of the Bell Inn and Outbuildings to be taken down, as well as the remainder of the premises rendered very inconvenient by being separated.
The expense of this line exclusive of building a new Bridge will be Two thousand seven hundred & twenty pounds
The distance saved will be 310 yards

No.3 New line from the present Bridge to the Market Place in Winslow
In this will be required
51 chains of new Road
3a 1r 0p of Land to be purchased exclusive of the Bell and Workhouse premises
95 chains of fencing (exclusive of Do. And Do.)
Several Gates and Culverts
The Hill to be lowered and the Valleys raised as appears by reference to the Section
Part of the Workhouse and premises and part of the Bell Inn as in No 2
The expense of this line (exclusive of repair of Bridge) will amount to Two Thousand three hundred pounds
The distance saved will be 300 yards

No.4 New line from the present Bridge leaving the Town of Winslow to the West, top join the present Road near the 51st Mile Stone
In this line will be required
77 chains of new Road
4a 3r 0p of Land to be purchased
150 chains of fencing
Several Gates and Culverts
And the Hills to be lowered and the Valley raised as in Section No. 4.
The expense of this line (exclusive of repair of Bridge) will be One Thousand six hundred & thirty pounds
The distance saved will be 360 yards

To take down a great part of the present Bridge and rebuild the same nineteen feet wide outside the Walls.
The Walls to be 14 inches thick, with piers at the ends. Walls of the same thickness at the approaches to the Bridge.
Stone Coping to the Walls 16 inches wide clamped with iron.
Stone coping to the piers.
And the Oak posts and rails at the North end of the Bridge to be made good.
The expense of repairing this Bridge according to the above specification will be about One hundred pounds.

If the whole is taken down and rebuilt in the same Site it will cost about One hundred & fifty pounds.
If rebuilt in the line of the Road No. 2 according to the same Plan and Specification using the old materials it will cost about Two hundred pounds.

John King
23 April 1835

Bucks Herald, 6 Aug 1836
Several of the Magistrates met at Hardwick Bridge on Tuesday last, when they resolved to recommend the trustees of the Wendover and Buckingham road to carry out the proposed alteration of the road so as to avoid Hardwick Hill, if their funds would permit.  We are of opinion that to make an alteration as proposed from the bridge, at the bottom of Shipton Hill, into Winslow, although more expensive, would be infinitely more beneficial and satisfactory.

When Rev. St.John Priest published A General View of Agriculture in Buckinghamshire in 1813, he made this recommendation (p.342), which was never acted upon, and was made superfluous when the railways arrived:

A turnpike-road from Newport by Linford, Stony Stratford and Whaddon, to Winslow, a distance of 18 miles, would facilitate this traffic [from the canal], and be well supported by it, independent of the importance it would have in opening a communication between Aylesbury, on the south of the county, with the north; a convenience which would be felt by others as well as by the inhabitants of Bucks.  

The Wendover and Buckingham Trust started to lose signficant revenue when the railway between Winslow and Buckingham opened in 1850, but the creation of the through route from Aylesbury via Verney Junction in 1868 probably finished it. It was closed by Act of Parliament on 1 Nov 1878 (Gulland, Toll Roads of Bucks, p.109).

This incident of bad driving presumably took place on the main road in Winslow:

Bucks Herald, 30 June 1849
Thomas Read, gardener, of Leighton Buzzard, was charged with furiously driving his horse and cart, and upsetting an old man named Matthew Deeley, at Winslow, on the 31st May, whereby he was considerably injured.  Mr. S. Dudley deposed seeing Read drive up the street at a furious rate, and saw the horse run against Deeley and knock him down and he was much hurt.  The case being proved satisfactory to the bench, he was fined 30s. with 10s. costs, to be paid forthwith, or in default, one months’ imprisonment.- Paid.

Copyright 3 June, 2020