14 High Street (Royal Oak)

The building which is now 14 High Street (The Farm Deli in 2020) probably began as one of the 13th-century burgage plots running in a narrow strip between the roads now called High Street and Greyhound Lane. Until the 17th century it was probably one building with 12 High Street. It has no doubt been rebuilt many times, and what is there now is an 18th-century Grade II listed building with brickwork very similar to that of the King's Head (26 High Street):

Shop and house. Mid-late C18. Vitreous brick with red dressings, moulded wooden eaves cornice with enriched dentils, slate roof, brick stack to right, 2 storeys and attic, 3 bays. Projecting C19 shop front with moulded cornice. Doric pilasters and central door. First floor has barred sash windows with gauged brick heads. Attic has 2 dormers with cornice tops and paired leaded casements.

At the rear (not mentioned in the listing) the main roof is tiled and there are two asymmetrical projecting bays, both with tiled roofs, the northern one with a sash window with gauged brickwork above and multicoloured bricks.

Hiltons with for sale sign
This photo was taken in about 1981 at the end of the 120 years during which 14 High Street had been a shoe shop

It can be identified tentatively as the "Messuage with a yard, Garden & Backside" which John and Joan Paxton sold to Richard and Mary Rogers in 1656. For the Hearth Tax of 1662/3 Richard Rogers was assessed with two hearths. The house was enlarged, as a mortgage arrangement from 1665 refers to "a new bay of structure with a slipe of ground". In 1666 Richard and Mary sold the house to Christopher Cotes and his wife Alice, retaining the use of part of it for their lives:

Edmund Paxton, Wendover Lounds [mortgagees], Richard Rogers and Mary his wife surrendered a messuage in Winslow with yards and "backsides" to the following uses:

Mary Rogers was buried in 1670 and Richard probably died in 1672, leaving Christopher and Alice Cotes with ownership of the whole property. At the 1694 manor court:

Joseph Glenister and Jane his wife [mortgagees] and Christopher Coates and Alice his wife surrendered a messuage now in Christopher's occupation, with all houses, outhouses, etc. (except the great Roome over the Entry), with the entry belonging to the messuage and used and enjoyed with it, the messuage of Nicholas Merwin gent. north ... previously surrendered [i.e. mortgaged in 1684] by Christopher and Alice to Jane Nash, now wife of Joseph Glenister. To the use of Nicholas Merwin of Winslow, gent., on condition that if Christopher and Alice pay him £55 on 27 Oct 1697 with interest in twice-yearly payments, the surrender will be void.

It seems that the mortgage was not paid, and in 1699-1700 several people gave up their claims to the property: Christopher Coates, his son Charles (who in 1685 had been granted the reversion after his father's death) and Charles' wife Frances, and Frances' sister Martha and her husband Robert Montague (they were the daughters of Wendover Lowndes). Ownership was transferred to Nicholas Merwin's sister Hannah Merwin and to Thomas Langley, maltster, both of Kingston on Thames, who passed it on in 1701 to the lawyer Nicholas Merwin who lived next door. All transactions state that "the great chamber over the entry (is) excepted"; that was treated as part of no.12.

Plan of 14-24 High Street
This plan based on the 1880 OS Map shows no.14 and properties to the north involved in a dispute between Nicholas Merwin and Robert Gibbs in 1700. There was another entry (for horses and possibly carts) on the south side of no.14 dividing it from no.12.

In June 1699 the occupier of the property was said to be Thomas Paxton. He previously kept The Swan in Sheep Street (see Brook Hall), and now seems to have turned 14 High Street into an inn called the Royal Oak.

1712: Quarter Sessions, 17 Jan
An appeal from the inhabitants of Mursley was to be heard by certain justices at the "Royall Oake in Winslow".

1714: will of Thomas Paxton, innholder (buried 14 March)

Thomas Hazzard got married in Winslow in 1713, and took over the Royal Oak with his wife Hannah (click here for more information about the family).

1714 manor court: The jurors were ordered (on 29 March) to "mett together att the House of Thomas Hazzard called the Royall Oake" to settle some boundary disputes.

1715 manor court: The fieldsmen and steward were to meet at the Royal Oak to give orders about removing illegal hedges and ditches.

1737: Will and inventory of Thomas Hazzard, innholder.

The inventory shows that the Royal Oak had kitchen, fore parlour and back parlour, each with a room over it, and a cellar. There was brewing equipment, wine and a large quantity of cheese. Hazzard had coal as well as wood, kept pigs, but only had one horse so the extensive stables must have been for the use of customers. The "great chamber over the entry" was probably still attached to no.12.

Hannah Hazzard continued to keep the Royal Oak until 1767, presumably when she died. It was one of the properties damaged in the fire of 1748. The inn was evidently frequented by the son of another lawyer, John Markham.

1746: Will of John Markham, gentleman
... in case my said Son Robert shall Marry Hannah Hazard daughter of Hannah Hazard of Winslowe aforesaid Alehousekeeper or any other daughter of the said Hannah Hazard the Elder  Then the said Legacy of Four hundred and Fifty pounds shall cease and not be paid him and then also his said Annuity of Sixty Pounds a Year shall cease and not be paid my said Son Robert ...

Unfortunately it's not known what happened to Robert or Hannah jr. At some point after 1748 Nicholas Merwin or the trustees appointed by his will must have sold the building to the surgeon John Turner.

1764: Will of John Turner, surgeon (proved 1767)
... All that my Copyhold Messuage or Tenement with its Appurt(enance)s in Winslow aforesaid known by the Name or Sign of the Royal Oak now in the Occupation of the Widow Hazard ...

The Enclosure Award of 1767 mentions the garden of the Royal Oak as an old enclosure belonging to John's widow Catherine Turner. In 1773, the three younger children of John and Catherine each inherited a third share of the property after she died, but in 1775 they all transferred their shares to William Harrup of Great Horwood, yeoman. This seems to have been a legal device, probably because of ambiguous wording in John Turner's will, as in 1776 Harrup transferred the whole property back to William Packer of King Street in the parish of St Giles in the Fields, brewer, the son-in-law of John and Catherine Turner.

The Alehouse Recognizances show that John Hazzard (son of Thomas and Hannah) took over the inn in 1767. He died in 1774 and his widow Kitty remained as landlady until 1790 despite some changes of ownership.

1787: Special Manor Court, 21 Feb
Surrender: William Packer of King’s Street, St Giles in the Fields, brewer by Benjamin Dudley gent. his attorney
Admission: John Tims of Shipton yeoman
Messuage or public house in Winslow now in the occupation of Kitty Hazzard widow called the Royal Oak, with Houses, Outhouses, Edifices, Buildings, Barns, Stables, Yards, Gardens, Backsides, reserving to Elizabeth Turner widow [who lived at no.16] liberty of ingress from the yard belonging to her messuage now or late in occupation of John Tookey, and of and into a certain Lane adjoining to the Garden and Backside of William Selby Esquire in Winslow aforesaid called or known by the Name of Back Lane [=Greyhound Lane] into by through and over the Yard belonging to the said Messuage called the Royal Oak.

1790: Manor Court, 29 Oct 
Surrender: John Tims of Biddlesden yeoman & Ann his wife
Admission: John Williams of Biddlesden labourer
All that messuage or tenement or public house situate standing and being in Winslow aforesaid within the said manor called or known by the name or sign of the Royal Oak and now in the tenure or occupation of Kitty Hazzard widow together with all houses outhouses edifices buildings barns stables yards gardens ways waters privileges and appurtenances.

John Williams took over the running of the Royal Oak as he is listed in the 1790-94 Alehouse Recognizances. In 1791 he mortgaged it to Thomas Morecraft, butcher, for £50. He sold up in 1795, although his carrier's business continued in Winslow until 1800.

1795: Northampton Mercury, 23 May
To be LETT or SOLD
And immediate Possession given,
THAT old-established PUBLIC-HOUSE,
known by the Sign of the ROYAL OAK,
and now in full Trade, situate in COW-STREET, at
WINSLOW in the County of Bucks; – and consists
of a good Brick and Tile built Dweling House, four
Rooms on a Floor, with good cellars, a large Yard,
Garden, Barns, and Stables; now in the Occupation
of the Owner, Mr. Williams, Carrier, who purposes
leaving the Public Business.  The Stock of which is
to be taken at a fair Appraisement.
            For further Particulars, and to treat for the same,
apply to the said Mr. Williams; or Joseph Dudley,
of Winslow aforesaid.

1795: Manor Court, 28 & 29 Oct 
Surrender: John Williams of Winslow common carrier and Elizabeth his wife
Admission: George West currier
All that messuage or tenement or public house called the Royal Oak situate standing and being in Winslow aforesaid late in the tenure or occupation of the said John Williams and now empty and also all houses outhouses edifices buildings barns stables yards gardens backsides ways waters privileges and appurtenances

Land Tax returns show that George West, owner of the Greyhound Lane tannery, now occupied the property himself, and it ceased to be a public house. The sign of the Royal Oak transferred to 2B High Street.

1825: Will of George West, currier (proved 1827)
I do hereby give unto my said Son George West all that my Copyhold Messuage or Tenement at Winslow wherein I now reside together with all and singular my household Goods and furniture Plate China Books of account Stock in Trade Plate Linen and Wearing Apparel which I may die possessed of and leave in the said Copyhold Messuage or Tenement wherein I reside as aforesaid together also with my Stock of Wines and Liquors of every description

Land Tax and church rate records show that the occupant at least from 1832 was John West, a younger son of the elder George, but he was left out of the 1841 Census.

1851: Census
High Street [the relationship between the two households is unclear, and James Walker may have lived at the rear of no.16 or in part of no.14]

James Walker Head married 25 Mason b. Toddington
Ann Walker Wife married 23 Dressmaker b. Winslow
Rebecca Syrett   visitor 8   b. Soulbury
John Robert West Head unm 46 Landed proprietor b. Winslow
Ann Thompson Servant unm 29 Housekeeper b. Newark

From 1852 the occupant was Richard Baldwin, previously a baker but apparently now retired.

1856: Bicester Herald, 25 Oct

On MONDAY NEXT, the 27th of OCT., 1856, AT TWELVE o’CLOCK,
On the Premises, HIGH STREET, WINSLOW,
By Direction of MR. RICHARD BALDWIN, who is leaving Winslow.

COMPRISING Pembroke, Dining, and other Tables in Oak and Mahogany, Windsor and other chairs, bureau tent and other bedsteads, feather and flock beds, mahogany bureau, mahogany buffet with glass doors, 30 hour clock in case, two silver watches, ale casks, about 50 gallons of ale, kitchen requisites, brewing tubs, saddle, pair of timber chains, chaff-box and knife, barn shovels, sundry lots of useful wood & fire wood, and other effects.
            May be viewed on the Morning of Sale.
            Will be sold without any reserve for Cash.

The church rate book lists Mr Warr as the occupant in 1859.

1861: Census
Buckingham Road

Sarah Bennett Head widow 65 Retired Farmer b. Broughton
Ann Sabin Servant unm 16 Domestic Servant b. Buckingham

George West the owner had moved to Oxford (will proved 1864) and put 14 High Street up for sale:

1862: Bucks Herald, 25 Oct

Situate in the HIGH STREET.
On FRIDAY, OCTOBER the 31st, 1862, At the BELL INN, WINSLOW, at Five o’Clock in the Afternoon,

A CAPITAL and Substantially Brick-built and Tiled RESIDENCE, in the HIGH STREET, WINSLOW, containing 2 excellent front sitting rooms, 2 kitchens, and 2 capital cellars; 4 good lofty bedrooms, 2 large attics, a pump of excellent water, a convenient walled garden, large yard, and several outbuildings, extending to the Back Lane, from which there is an entrance.
  THE HOUSE is in the occupation of Mrs. Bennett, and the Premises and Yard are in possession of Mr. George West, the proprietor.
  To a Person requiring room, this Property offers an opportunity which is seldom to be met with in the Town of Winslow.
  It is COPYHOLD of the Manor of Winslow and subject to a trifling Quit-rent and a fine certain on death or alienation.
  Two-thirds of the Purchase Money may remain on Mortgage if required.

  For a View, apply on the Premises, and for further Particulars to Messrs. Willis and Willis, Solicitors, or to Messrs. Dudley and Son, Auctioneers and Land Agents, Winslow.

This is when the property was acquired from George West jr by John Corkett , who had previously been at 8 High Street.

1870: manor court
Mortgaged by John Corkett for £250 + 5% interest to Mary Rose of Buckingham, widow.

1871 Census
High Street

John Corkett Head married 51 Bootmaker b. Soulbury
Ann do Wife married 49   b. Heath, Beds
John do Son   14   b. Winslow
Frederick T. do Son   4 Scholar b. Winslow
Sarah do Mother widow 75   b. Buckland
Mary do Niece unm 14   b. Thornborough

Billhead of John Corkett Boot & Shoe Manufacturer
Bill from John Corkett to the blacksmith John Grace. Note the extended credit which customers expected.

1881 Census
High Street

Ann Corkett Wife married 59   b. Heath, Beds
Edward do Son unm 22 Shoemaker b. Winslow
Frank T. do Son   14 Scholar b. Winslow
Mary do Niece unm 24 Dressmaker b. Thornborough

1891 Census
High Street

John Corkett Head married 71 Shoemaker b. Soulbury
Ann do Wife married 69   b. Heath, Beds
Lizzie Dickins Granddaughter   15   b. Whaddon

Corketts and adjacent buildings
This view of Corkett's (marked with white arrow) was taken from the church tower before the front of the shop was altered, presumably by Hilton's, to create two large shop windows

1894:  7 Jan: Death of John Corkett aged 74
Effects £1,333 9s 10d, administration to his widow Ann

1894: Buckingham Advertiser, 13 Jan
We much regret to have to record the somewhat sudden death of Mr. John Corkett, which took place on Sunday morning from influenza.  Deceased was almost the oldest tradesman of the town, and for many years has been the principal shoe manufacturer (an occupation which during the latter part of his life, he varied with farming), setting up business somewhere about the opening of the Buckinghamshire Railway,and was known and respected through a large part of the district.  He was a shrewd keen man of business, and in politics a thorough Radical.  He leaves a large family of grown up sons, several of whom are in the shoe business at Leicester.  His age was 74 years.
Bucks Herald, 13 Jan
  Small country towns like Winslow, a generation or two ago, were capital places for business-far better than at the present time.  Some twenty-five or thirty years ago there was hardly a tradesman who was not amassing a competence, if not something better-as the names of Mr. Joshua French, Mr. George Cross, Mr. James and Mr. William Hawley, Mr. George King, Mr. Grant King, Mr. Henry Wigley, Mr. Maydon, Mr. Morecraft, Mr. John Ingram, &c., testify.  Mr. Corkett was probably the last of them.  Now, stores and the parcel post sadly handicap local tradesmen.

1895: Directory
Corkett, William V. boot & shoe maker High Street

1898: bought by S. Hilton & Sons as two shops (see below)

1899: Directory
Hilton, Stephen & Sons boot makers High Street

Hilton's was a firm of boot and shoe manufacturers from Leicester who had a shop at 2 Horn Street ("The Booteries") before moving to 14 High Street around 1897. They remained the owners until the shop closed in about 1981.

14 and 12 High Street
This slightly later photo shows Hilton's in the left side of the building and the right side with a separate shop front

1901 Census
High Street

John W. Long Head married 32 Manager, boot shop b. Kidlington
Ellen do Wife married 33   b. Gt Billing, Northants
Leonard W. do Son   1   b. Winslow
Horace H.. do Son   1   b. Winslow
Kate Stairs Servant   14 General servant b. Winslow

This entry is followed by an unoccupied dwelling which must represent the shop front on the right in the photo above. The two fronts were later combined, but the division into two houses behind them was still there in 1925 (see below). The empty part was advertised to let in 1902.

Hiltons and Ingrams
Fronts of Hilton's shoe shop and Ingram's butcher's shop, early 1900s. Between the two shops, there was (and still is, behind a door) pedestrian access to the rear of Ingram's (no.12); see map below.

1902: Buckingham Advertiser, 25 Oct
TO LET, HOUSE and SHOP, best position in the town; suitable for Grocers, Chemists, etc.- Apply HILTON, Booteries, High Street.

1911 Census
High Street

Mr Emerson, 6 rooms
William Emerson Head married 43 Manager, retail boot stores b. Kingsthorpe, Northants
Kate do Wife married 46 married 22 years, 9 children (8 living) b. Wragby, Lincs
Elsie R. do Daughter single 19 Boot shop assistant  b. Northampton St Giles
Jessie R. do Daughter single 16 Boot shop assistant  b. Northampton St Sepulchre
Eunice E. do Daughter   14   b. Winslow
Douglas do Son   12   b. Winslow
Phyllis E. do Daughter   4   b. Winslow
Basil G. do Son   1   b. Winslow
Mrs Uncles, 5 rooms
Emily Uncles Head married 35 married 14 years, 6 children (5 living) b. St Ives, Hunts
Albert do Son   14   b. Norwood, London
Phoebe do Daughter   12 school b. Houghton, Hunts
Lena do Daughter   7   b. Eltom, Kent
Nellie do Daughter   4   b. Cheam, Surrey
Fred do Son   2   b. Norwood, London

In 1910, Eunice Emerson was the star of Winslow School's production of Dick Whittington.

1914: assessment (TNA, IR58/2347 no.123)
Situation              High Street Winslow
Description         House & Shops
Gross Value: Buildings   £27
Rateable Value: Buildings             £21 – 12 - 6
Occupier & Owner           Stephen Hilton, Joseph Arthur Hilton, George Edward Hilton & Stephen Hilton the Younger all of Freeschool Lane Leicester Boot Factors trading as “S. Hilton & Sons”
Interest of Owner            Joint owners as part of their partnership property            Freehold
Outgoings – Land Tax, £ 1 – 6 – 3  for this house & the adjoining  occupied by ‘Waltons’                     Paid by Owners                                
Fixed Charges. Easements, Common Rights and Restrictions
Rights of way for adjoining owners over part of the property
Former Sales      Dates                    1898
Consideration                                £605       For this & adjoining shop
Subsequent Expenditure             £260       D(itt)o
Site Value deductions Claimed   Yes
[stamp] SEP 30 1914
Particulars, description and note made on inspection     
Includes 309 [see below]
2 Shops & house now converted into one
In each shop. Living, kitchen, scullery & 3 bedrooms
Bad cellar
20 poles
Charges, Easements and Restrictions affecting Market Value of Fee Simple
Rt of way over yard at back                                                                                    
Valuation – Market Value of Fee Simple in possession of whole property in its present condition   £700
Deduct Market Value of Site under similar circumstances, but if divested of structures, timber, fruit trees, and other things growing on the land
30’ front @ £4                                    5400 sq ft                                                                       £120
Difference Balance, being portion of market value attributable to structures, timber &c.                £580
Market Value of Fee Simple in its present condition (as before)                                                   £700
Add Restrictions               [illegible]                                                                                              £20
GROSS VALUE                                                                                                                            £720
Less value attributable to Structures, timber &c. (as before)                                                        £580
FULL SITE VALUE                                                                                                                       £140
Gross Value (as before)                                                                                                               £720
Less Public Rights of Way or User                                                              £20
Restrictions                                                                                                                                 £20
                TOTAL VALUE                                                                                                              £700

TNA, IR58/2349 no.309
Situation                       High Street             
Description                   House & Shop        
Gross Value: Buildings   £25                     Rateable Value: Buildings             £20
Occupier                       P.H. Walton since Vacant
Owner                          S. Hilton & Sons Freeschool Lane Leicester
Interest of Owner         Joint owners of Freehold
Occupier’s tenancy, Term    14 yrs determinable by tenant at 7 yrs      from  March 25 1903          
Actual Rent                 £25
Outgoings -  Land Tax, £1 – 6 - 3          paid by Owners for this & adjoining property
Who pays (a) Rates and Taxes (b) Insurance }(a) T       (b) L
Who is liable for repairs                                 Tenant inside     Landlord outside
Fixed Charges, Easements, Common Rights and Restrictions
Former Sales  Dates                        1898
Consideration                                    £605 for this & adjoining premises occupied by owners
Owner’s Estimate Gross Value   £260
Site Value Deductions Claimed   Yes
Valued with 123

1920:  Directory
Hilton, S. & Sons boot makers High Street

1925: Buckingham Advertiser, 24 Jan
The funeral of the late Mr William Emerson took place on Thursday, the service at the Congregational Church (conducted by the Rev. H.C. Vincent) being followed by interment in the new churchyard.  Members of the Orchestral Society, of which the late Mr. Emerson was the conductor, acted as bearers, and in addition to the family mourners there was a representative attendance of members of the Sports Club and other friends.  Many beautiful wreaths were sent.  The deceased was 56 years of age, and will be much missed by the Sports Club and Orchestral Society, for which projects he worked so hard.

Map showing 12-16 High Street
The 1925 OS map shows that behind Hiltons' shop front the building had been divided into two dwellings

1935:  Register of Electors
Rushen, Ethelbert 14 High Street 
He had his own shop at 62 High Street by 1939

1939: Directory
Hilton, S. & Sons boot makers 14 High Street

1939: Register, 14 High Street
George F. Cane, b. 31 October 1898, Manager Boot & Shoe Stores, A.R.P. Warden Buckingham [d. 1976 in Torbay]
Ivy M Cane, b.22 April 1906 unpaid domestic duties [d. 1985 in Birmingham]
Diana R Cane [added above name: Mottram] 1 February 1935 Under school age [birth registered at Basingstoke]

Hilton's continued until about 1981, after which the shop went through various uses including Romantique, Thierry's Wine Bar, Cork's Wine Bar, The Emporium, Rosie's and now (2020) The Farm Deli.

Copyright 6 April, 2024