Daniel Yeulett the carrier, 1844

A Tale of a Willing Old Nag with a Sting in its Tail

Notes from  Ed Grimsdale

Bucks Herald, 10 Jan 1844

A black mare, now belonging to Daniel Yeulett, a carrier, at Winslow, has travelled from that place to Buckingham for the purpose of taking coals, &c, twenty four years and a half. She has averaged nine times in each week; it being seven miles from Winslow to the new wharf, the amount of miles is enormous – being 160,524. This rare old animal still continues her labours.

Bucks Herald, 13 Jan 1844

The old mare belonging to Mr Yeulett, of Winslow, whose wondrous performance was noted in our last week’s paper, in which it was stated that "she was still on the road," is erroneous – she died on Friday morning, just before that number went to press.

The Black Horse, with signNotes

The poor nag was fetching coals to Winslow from the New Wharf on the Canal beside the Stony Stratford Road in Buckingham. These pieces show just how much coal was brought to North Bucks by the Buckingham arm of the Grand Union Canal that opened in 1801. Before that time, there would have been no coal available in Winslow, excepting small quantities brought by wagons, at a very high price.

The Yeulett family ran their carrier business in Winslow for several generations. Kelly's Directory of 1854 says that their waggon went to Buckingham via Adstock and Padbury four days a week. They sold beer in Sheep Street from the premises which are now no.17, and were known as the Black Horse from at least 1861, probably in honour of the famous mare. As there are no other references to Daniel, he was probably the same person as George (see below). One of the family was a crack shot in the Volunteers. In the 1861 census John Yeulet aged 23 was recorded as "Lab (wharf)", so presumably worked on the Canal in Buckingham.

Later in the year the Bucks Herald told this story:

Bucks Herald, 26 Oct 1844

One of the Brackley police, […] went from Buckingham to Winslow with Mr. D. Yeulett, the Winslow carrier. From enquiries made as to the no. of miles he went in an hour? Whether his was a van or a wagon? &c., Yeulett supposed he intended informing against him; he therefore refused to take 6d (2.5p) of him when he got down at Winslow; he then said “Oh you keep a public-house,” to which Yeulett replied “No, his was a beer shop only,” and directed him to it. The gentleman then went and very pressingly endeavoured to persuade Mrs Yeulett to let him have gin, rum, brandy or even some home made wine, or even to send out for some for him; but the good woman was proof against all entreaty, and thus preserved her money. It is the duty of policemen to use some craft to ascertain where unlawful practices are supposed to exist, for public report or information; but it is very wrong that any person should be decoyed into the commission of an offence against excise laws. Mr. and Mrs. Yeulett were too respectable to be the victims on this occasion.


There was a strict speed limit for all horse-drawn wagons on public roads. It was 12 m.p.h for stage coaches. Once, engines on wheels started to proliferate, things got tighter. The Locomotive Act of 1865 reduced the speed limit to 4 m.p.h. in the country and 2 m.p.h. in towns. The Act required a man with a red flag or lantern to walk 60 yards ahead of each vehicle, enforce a walking pace, and warn horse riders and horse drawn traffic of the approach of a self-propelled machine such as a traction engine.

Beer shops were not licensed to sell spirits (or wine). The Beerhouse Act, 1830, was introduced by the Duke of Wellington's government. It abolished the beer tax, extended the opening hours of public houses, taverns and alehouses to 18 hours a day, but local licensing was mandatory. The Act also introduced the concept of the beerhouse: premises which could sell only beer. The opening hours could be from 4 a.m. (sic!) to 10 p.m. For a flat fee of 2 guineas payable to the local excise officer, any adult could brew and sell beer. The excise licence would state whether the beer could be drunk on or off the premises.  Such beerhouses were outside the control of local justices until 1869. When those controls came in, many beerhouses shut or were turned into “proper” pubs, although Elizabeth Yeulett still called herself a beer house keeper in 1871

The Black Horse

According to the Return of Public Houses of 1872, the Black Horse had been licensed since 1832 (not necessarily under that name). In 1841 (see census return) it was the home of George Yeulet, carrier, aged 49 and his wife Elizabeth aged 33. There is no reference to it being a beerhouse in the census, but George was listed as a beer retailer in 1853 and Elizabeth in 1877. In 1861 George called himself a farmer and coal merchant employing 4 men and 2 boys. He died at “the Black Horse Public House” on 27 Aug 1862. Elizabeth died in 1881 aged 74, and in the census of that year the Black Horse was occupied by her son James, aged 35, a brewer.

The building which is now 17 Sheep Street consists of three separate builds which were probably treated at times as more than one house, and also has extensive outbuildings. One part can be traced in the manor court records to 1760 when Richard West of Winslow, shopkeeper, sold to William King of Winslow, carpenter "a messuage in Sheepstreet with Slaughterhouse Barns Stables Orchards late in the occupation of William Burrell".

In his will made in 1784 (proved 1795) William King bequeathed to his son, also William, "All that my Messuage or Tenement Situate in Sheep Street in Winslow aforesaid wherein I now Dwell". William jr was to hold for his life. If he left no children it was then to go to "my two Daughters Sarah the Wife of Anthony Ridgeway and Ann King". William jr was already dead in 1795, and Ann (by then wife of William Clarke of Mursley) surrendered her share to her sister and brother-in-law. Anthony and Sarah Ridgway mortgaged it in 1800 to William Lowndes, by which time it was said to have "workshop, barn, stable, buildings, yard, garden".

By 1814 the premises were occupied by John Ridgway, Anthony's brother. He sold up in 1825 and was "of Peachell Street, Paddington" in 1826.

Northampton Mercury, 28 May 1825

To Carpenters, Wheelwrights, Timber
Dealers, &c.
By J. Harrison,

On Wednesday, 1st June, 1825, on the Premises of Mr. J. RIDGWAY, Sheep Street, WINSLOW, Bucks (who is removing to London);

VALUABLE PREMISES, STOCK, HOUSEHOLD FURNITURE, &c. – The STOCK consists of a large Quantity of seasoned Spokes, Hubs, and Felloes; ash, oak, sycamore, and arbele Plank and Boards; coffin Ditto, rave Plank, Number of Deals and deal Boards of various Thicknesses, mahogany and other Veneers, new Doors and window Frames, new and old Sashes, several new Ladders, Quantity of oak, elm, ash, sycamore, and other Timber; Scatfold and other Poles;  oak and deal Lath;  large wheel and foot turning Lathes; Benches, Tools, pit and felloe Saws;  timber Carriage, nearly new, ten Chains, Gin with Rope and Pulleys, Truck;  several Dozen gate and fold Hurdles, fire Wood and Fagots, Hovel, Wheelbarrows, iron Bars, &c. &c.

The FURNITURE comprises four-post and other Bedsteads, with Furniture;  feather Beds and Bedding;  dining, tea and dressing Tables; parlour and chamber Chairs;  Sets of mahogany and oak Chests of Drawers, Bureau, Clock and Case, pier and swing Glasses, wash Stands, Pictures, fender and fire Irons;  Books on various Subjects;  a general Assortment of kitchen and culinary Articles, sweet beer Casks, brewing and washing Tubs and Trays, and numerous other useful Effects.

The PREMISES, comprising a convenient dwelling House, consisting of a Parlour, living Room (in which is an excellent small Oven), Kitchen, Pantry, Cellar, and three large sleeping Rooms;  Pump and Well of excellent Water, spacious Joiner’s Shop, Wheeler’s Ditto, turning Ditto, Sawpit, with Shed;  wood Barn, and other Out-buildings, large Yard and Gardens. &c.

These Premises (on which the above Businesses have been established many Years), will be sold exactly at Twelve o’Clock.

The Sale will commence with the Stock precisely at Ten, on Account on the great Number of Lots.

Also in 1825 the premises were transferred to George Yeulett and Sarah his wife, to hold for the lives of both of them, and then to go to George's heirs. They were the people who started the beerhouse. Sarah died in 1836 aged 47 and George then married Elizabeth Dumbleton, originally from Cropredy.

Bucks Herald, 8 Jan 1853 (Bucks Quarter Sessions)
WILLIAM HARRIS, 34, and ANN HARRIS, 38, charged with having, on the 30th October, at Winslow, stolen one copper tea-kettle, value 8s., the property of George Yeulet.
Elizabeth Yeulet – My husband keeps the Black Horse, at Winslow;  I know the prisoners at the bar;  they were at my house on the 30th of October;  on the on the [sic] following morning I missed a tea-kettle, and on the 1st of November I went with the constable to the prisoners’ house;  Ann Harris brought the kettle from under the stairs.  (The kettle was here produced and identified.)
George Goodger – I live close to the prosecutor;  on the 30th of October I heard a noise outside the Black Horse;  Ann Harris was there;  I saw a kettle in the road, and when the prisoners left they took the kettle with them.
Robert Ossitt, constable at Winslow, corroborated the statements made by the witnesses.
Guilty.  Two months’ imprisonment each. 

George Yeulett died in 1863 aged 70, leaving his real estate to trustees, Joshua Lewin French and Alfred Barton, who put it up for sale after Elizabeth died. John Yeulett carried on a coal business until 1872.

Black Horse sale poster 1881In 1881, the premises were put up for sale by Dudley & Son and Geo. Wigley (click on the image to see a larger version). The pub had front and back parlours, tap room, three stables, cart shed, brewhouse, walled garden, and four bedrooms in all. It failed to sell and was “bought in” for £440, but Thomas Walker, a master bricklayer, bought it for £340 later in the year. He was there in 1889 when he appeared to testify in court as some boys were convicted of obstructing the footpath in Sheep Street.

Buckingham Advertiser, 9 Feb 1889
  LIBERALITY.- On February 1st, Mr. and Mrs. T. P. Willis, with their usual kindness, entertained the workmen of Mr. T. Walker, the contractor for building the new offices, &c., in the High Street, to an excellent supper at the Black Horse Inn, and to which full justice was done.  After the removal of the cloth, the health of Mr. and Mrs. Willis was drunk, hoping that they might live a long and happy life, and enjoy the new buildings which were in erection.  After singing “For he’s a jolly good fellow,” three ringing cheers were given for Mr. and Mrs. Willis; and there were then placed on the table refreshments and cigars, and a very pleasant evening was spent- many expressing that they never enjoyed themselves better in their lives.

In 1891 Walker was listed there as builder and licensed victualler. On 11 Jan 1893 William Walker was given a temporary “holdover” of the licence.

Buckingham Advertiser, 14 Oct 1899
COMPRISING Scaffold Poles and Planks, Ladders, Steps, and quantity of good old Material and Joinery, a few lots of well-seasoned Joiner’s Stuff and Timber, and Strong Builder’s Truck, a two-quarter Mash Tub and BREWING PLANT, quantity of useful Builder’s Ironmongery, and numerous miscellaneous items.
TO BE SOLD BY AUCTION, BY MR. GEO. WIGLEY On TUESDAY, October 17th, 1899, on the premises, at the Black Horse, Sheep Street, by direction of Mr. Thomas Walker, who is giving up the occupation.

Edward Lines was granted the licence in Nov 1899, and in the 1901 census he was listed there as publican, aged 27, born Chipping Warden.

Buckingham Advertiser, 22 Oct 1904
E. LINE BEGS to announce that having succeeded the late WM. FRENCH as
Bill Poster for Winslow And the Neighbourhood,
All Bills for Posting should be sent to him at the following address:-

In 1911 it was Albert Amos, publican, aged 42, and it was said to have 6 rooms. Kelly's Directory of 1924 lists John Alfred Gillam as beer retailer in Sheep Street, presumably at the Black Horse. The Gloucester Citizen of 23 June 1927 reported: "Licensed in 1832, the Black Horse Inn, in Winslow, is to be closed as redundant".

1910 Assessment: no.4
Situation              Black Horse Inn, Sheep St
Description         Beerhouse, Carpenter’s shop, stables, 2 sheds
Extent                   16 x 60 yds
Gross Value: Buildings   £17 – 10 - 0
Rateable Value: Buildings             £14
Occupier              Albert G. Amos
Owner                  W.T. Walker, Sheep St, Winslow
Interest of Owner            Freehold
Occupier’s tenancy Term: Lease 21 years from 29 Sept 1899. Leased to Messrs Phipps & Co, Brewers, Northampton
Actual (or Estimated) Rent £25, Less £2 for Compensation Fund
Outgoings Land Tax 8/- not paid
Other outgoings               Inhab House Duty by T.
Who pays (a) Rates and Taxes (b) Insurance       (a) T.  (b) L
Who is liable for repairs                 Outside by L., Inside by T.
Former Sales  Dates        A free gift from my father in 1892
Site Value Deductions Claimed
[Red] PV Copy to Mr Fleck 1/12/14          10 Nov 1914
Includes 513      
Particulars, description and notes made on inspection
Brick & slated Public House, 3 bedrooms, tap room, bar, sitting room, pantry & cellar.
Brick & slated Cottage at side which goes with ‘House’. 2 bedrooms & 1 down & pantry
30 poles 10 yds
Valuation – Market Value of Fee Simple in possession of whole property in its present condition
A.V. £18
Capital £300
Site  £65                                                                                                                                                                               
[red] L29400    £625
Deduct Market Value of Site under similar circumstances, but if divested of structures, timber, fruit trees, and other things growing on the land
50’ front               8250 ft           £65
Difference Balance, being portion of market value attributable to structures, timber &c.                £560 
Divided as follows:-
Buildings and structures                                                                                                              £560
Market Value of Fee Simple in its present condition (as before)                                                 £625
GROSS VALUE                                                                                                                             £625
Description of Buldings
Brick & Tiled Stabling (4) stalls & 1 box
Wood & Galvanised  3 sheds
Brick and slate Large wash house & room over

Buckingham Advertiser, 12 March 1927
The adjourned Licensing Sessions were held at Winslow on Friday last before the Hon. Cecil Fremantle (in the chair), Alderman E. A. Illing, Messrs. J. M. Missenden, C. M. Prior, E. J. Lines, and M. Broderick.

The question of closing the “Black Horse” public house was again heard and P. S. Taylor stated that it was a free house and Messrs. Phipps of Northampton supplied the beer.  He had taken measurements within a radius of a quarter of a mile and besides the “Black Horse,” there were six fully licensed houses in the neighbourhood, vis.: “The Bell,” “The George,” “The Bull,”  “Crooked Billett,” [sic] “Windmill,” and “The Nag’s Head.”  The latter was only 100 yards away from the house referred to.  The distance to the next nearest house – the Bell Hotel – was 250 yards.  Witness said he had taken a census of the houses in the radius referred to, which was 110 occupied houses.  Taking the average number of persons per house as four, the approximate number of people residing in that particular neighbourhood was 440 representing 62.6 persons per house.  In addition, Shipton Avenue, which was just outside the quarter mile radius, contained 20 houses or 80 persons.  He considered the needs of the neighbourhood could be supplied if the licence of the “Black Horse” was taken away.

Regarding the accommodation of this house, witness said access was through a yard at the back.  There was no front entrance.  There were two large tap-rooms, a large cellar, almost on the same floor, and one scullery downstairs.  He considered the “Nag’s Head” was a more serviceable house to the community, which was fully licensed and possessed a front entrance and a much better back way.

In reply to Mr. Prior, witness said the “Nag’s Head” and the “Black Horse” did about the same trade.  The “Nag’s Head” had much better facilities for drawing in.

Supt. Callaway said the “Black Horse” was an “on beer” house, which was first licensed in 1832.  The present tenant had held the licence since February, 1913.  The ownership of the freehold had changed this year.  The premises consisted of a ground floor with two tap-rooms – 14 feet square and 12 by 8 feet.  A large cellar led from the largest tap-room downstairs and adjoining this was a pantry.  There was a private living-room, a scullery, and an entrance lobby to the first tap-room.  There was no bar, and the beer was drawn from the wood.

On the first floor were three bedrooms, but only one appeared to be in use.  Outside there was an old, dilapidated stable buildings [sic] with standing for three horses and a loose box, which was unfit for use.  Over the box was a large gap in the roof, which rendered it useless, and the tiles had fallen in.  Part of the yard was fenced round with wire netting and was used as a fowl-run.

There was also an old bakehouse, which was marked “Registered Slaughter-house,” and the licensee had informed him that at one time it had been used as a slaughter place.  The entrance to one of the lavatories was through the wired-in portion.

Regarding the trade, the licensee informed him that he was doing 1½ barrels of beer per week, six to eight dozen bottled beer or stout, and a few minerals and a little tobacco.  There was no accommodation for travellers, and compared with the “Nag’s Head” was unfavourable.  He was of the opinion that the needs of the neighbourhood could be amply served if this house was closed.

John Alfred Gillam, licensee, said he had not applied for a renewal of licence because he understood the house had been referred for compensation.  He was informed a month ago that as Mr. McCorquodale had bought the house he did not wish to apply for a new licence, as he (Mr. McCorquodal)e was going to close the house altogether.  It was up to them to give him what compensation they thought he was entitled to, as his living had been taken away.

The Clerk (Mr. Philip Wood) informed the licensee that the magistrates had referred the house for compensation, not Mr. McCorquodale.  If this gentleman desired to close the house he (the licensee) would get no compensation.

Gillam said he had no objection to the house being referred for compensation.  The house had kept him when he was not in work.

Supt. Callaway said the house had always been well conducted.

Replying to the Superintendent, Gillam said he took the house in the first place to keep him, which it did before the war, but trade and profits were cut down so badly during the war.  The rent and rates were about £30 per annum.

The Chairman (Mr. C. M Prior) informed the licensee that they had taken into consideration that there were six other houses within a radius of a quarter of a mile, and one only 100 yards away.  They consequently referred the house for compensation.  The previous tenant had always conducted the house in a respectable manner and had been there since 1913, and naturally was using some of his income, and therefore was entitled to some compensation.

Bucks Herald, 18 June 1927
No opposition was offered to the closing of the Black Horse, Winslow. The tenant, Mr Gillam, said that he had no objection to the application, but would ask for compensation. Supt. Callaway said that the house had a licence for beer only and had been held by the present tenant since February, 1913. The owner was Mr McCorquodale, who purchased the premises last year. The house was first licensed in 1832. The licence was redundant and the trade was small. The licensee was recalled and questioned by the Chairman as to the trade of the house. He said the takings were about £4 weekly, - compensation was fixed at £200.

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