Court of survey 1660

When monarchy was restored in 1660 the manor of Winslow was returned to George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, along with his other confiscated estates. He seems to have sent a questionnaire round to all his estates asking for information. The following document is from the court of survey held on his behalf to provide the answers (see Clear 1894, 39-41, for some excerpts, but we've now transcribed the whole document). The first half of the document is the questions, and the second half is the answers. Annotations show that the document was used as evidence in a case in Chancery brought against William and Robert Lowndes in 1718.

The tenants confirmed the arrangements made earlier in the 17th century: the fixed fines payable for admission to copyhold property were 5s for a messuage and 2s per acre for land. Heriot was "the best good", or a tree or a "land of corn". They reported on how the manor was run in the 1650s, but the names given for the "reputed lords of the manor" here (answer 1; they bought the manor from Major General Philip Skippon in 1656) are different from those which appear in the court rolls (John Bowden, William Coleman and Michael Norman).

Centre for Bucks Studies, D/BASM 84/16

Articles to be enquired of by the Jury sworn at a Court of Survey of the Manor of Winslowe cum membris in the County of Bucks holden on the Eighth day of October, in the yeare of our Lord God, one thousands six hundred and sixtye, for the Right Noble Lord, George, Duke, Marquess and Earle of Buckingham, Earle of Coventry, Viscount Villiers, Barron Whaddon of Whaddon Knight of the most Noble Order of the Garter, and one of His Ma(jesty')s most honourable Privy Councell by William Lane Steward

1 Imprimis, To Enquire and p(re)sent, who have bene Stewards of this Mannor Bailiffs Reeves or Collectors of any of the Issues, Rents Revenues, and proffits of the same belonginge to the Lords of this Mannor for the space of twelve yeares last past or thereabouts.

2 To Enquire and p(re)sent the names addic(i)ons and places of aboade of all Persons which they Knowe or suspect to have any Evidences Court rolls, Rentalls, Books of Survey, Escripts, Writeing or Munim(en)ts whatsoever touching or concerning the said Mannor or the Lords thereof

3 To enquire and p(re)sent what are the severall Limits butts & Boundes of the said Mannor, and whither this Mannor doth extend into any other Mannor, or any other Mannor doe lye within the Limits or bounds of this And if soe, what Mannor and whose they are.

4 To enquire and p(re)sent what Mannor or Mansion houses did or doth belonge  unto the Lords of this Mannor, where and in what place they be scituate and by whome occupied.

5 To Enquire and p(re)sent what demesne Lands nowe are; or heretofore have bene belongineg or appertaininge to the said houses or Lords of the said Mannor, where and in what place or places of the Mannor they Lye, and in whose occupac(i)on the same nowe are, and what estates and Graunts they have therein and what rents and reservac(i)ons are due by such Graunts

6 To enquire and p(re)sent what Freeholders there are within and belonginge to this Mannor what they are, what Mannor Messuages Lands or Tenem(en)ts they hold thereof, and by what Tenures and Services they severally hold the same.

7 To enquire and p(re)sent what Customary or Copiehold Tenants there are in this Mannor who they are and what Customary Lands Messuages Tenem(en)ts or Cottages they now hold where they Lye and in whose Occupac(i)on they bee, and of what yearly value the same are of, distinguish betweene Errable Meadow & Pasture.

8  To enquire and p(re)sent what releifes herriotts Fines or other duties are paid or answerable upon or after the death or Alienac(i)on of any Copieholder.

9 To enquire and p(re)sent what are the Customes in Generall of such Copiehold(e)rs and of what meanes or For what causes such Copiehold(e)r may Loose or Forfeit his Copiehold estate

10  To enquire and p(re)sent what reliefes herriotts Fines or other duties or services are payd are paid or Answerable upon or after the death or Alienation of any Copieholder [exact repeat of clause 8]

11 To enquire and p(re)sent what Messuages tenem(en)ts Cottages or other buildings whatsoever have bene Erected and sett upp upon any the Copiehold Lands whatsoever within the said Mannor and are nowe standing and in what repaire the same nowe are.

12 To enquire and p(re)sent what Com(m)on or what Grounde there is within the said Mannor and of what proffitt to the Lord, what waste grounde is or hath at any time bene inclosed or built upon and by what person or persons nowe occupied or enioyed what persons have right of Com(m)on and how much thereof may be ymproved to the Lords use according to the Statute in that behalfe.

13 To enquire and p(re)sent what Lands tenements Rents services or other proffitts whatsoever are or have conceald withholden or withdrawne from the Lord of this Mannor and by whom they are or have bene soe concealed withheld or withdrawne, and likewise to p(re)sent every p(ar)ticular p(ar)cell of Land both of Errable Pasture and Meadow nowe in the poss(ess)ion of any Tenant or Tenants within this Mannor.

14 To enquire and p(re)sent what Lands tenem(en)ts Leases or other Estates of or in this Mannor have bene or are Escheated or Forfeited to the Lord by whome when, for what Cause, and in whose occupation the same nowe are

15 To enquire and p(re)sent what Fines issues Amerciam(ents) p(er)quisits of Courts harriotts Waifes Estraies Felons goods and other Casualties doe yearly accrew and growe unto the Lord out of this Mannor and by whome the same is and hath bene Collected and gathered and receaved

16 To enquire and p(re)sent what Mills there are within this Mannor belonginge to the Lord, and what Customes thereunto belonge, what Faires there are in this Mannor what Tolls there are belonginge to the same and by whome Collected what Ferries there are and by whom occupied.

17 To enquire and p(re)sent what Warrens, Fishings, Fowling hawkeing hunting or other Royalty the Lord of this Mannor hath or ought to have w(i)thin the same, and by whom the same or any of them is occupied or enioyed and for what terme.

18 To enquire and p(re)sent what Advowsans Patronages Free guifts or Presentac(i)ons of Parsonages Viccaridges or Chappells or what Impropriac(i)ons doe belonge unto this Mannor who is or are the p(re)sent Incumbent or Incumbents who hath the use of such Impropriac(i)on and what houses buildings or Glebe doth belonge unto the same.

19 To enquire and p(re)sent if any parte of the said Mannor be chargeable to and with any good pious and Charitable use or uses, and if soe, what parte is Chargeable, and to and with what good, pious and charitable use or uses.

20 To enquire and p(re)sent what Officers the Lord of this Mannor hath within the same, what Fees they doe or should yearly receave in respect of theire Offices, and what other Rents deducc(i)ons reprizes or other Payments are, or ought to be yearly paid reprized or issued out of the Revenues of the said Mannor  and to whome and for what Cause.

21 To Enquire and p(re)sent what Woods & Timber Quarries and Mines open or Covert of Stone Tile Slate, Cole, Tinn, or other Mettalls and upon any of the demesnes and soile of the Lord of the Mannor or upon any of the Copieholds.

The Presentments made by the Tenants and Homagers of the Manor of Winslowe hereund(e)r named of the Customes Lib(er)ties boundes p(re)cincts and other thinges belonginge to the said Manor of Winslowe \cum membris/ according to severall Articles to them delivered in writieng at a Court holden at the said Mannor of Winslowe on the Eighth day of October in the yeare of Our Lord God One thousand six hundred & sixtie  in the Twelveth yeare of the raign of our Soveraigne Lord Charles the Second by the Grace of God of England Scotland France and Ireland King Defender of the Faith &c by the Steward of the right noble Lord George Duke Marquesse and Earle of Buckingham, Earle of Coventry, Viscount Villers, Barron Whaddon of Whaddon, Knight of the most Noble Ord(e)r of the Garter, and one of the Lords of His Ma(jest)ys most Honorable Privy Councell, and by the Oathes of John Hogson, Benedict Holland of the Elme, Benedict Holland of the Pound, John Henley the eld(e)r,John Henley the Younger, Roger Woorall, William Lunt otherwise Sponer, Thomas Kirby, Hugh Seaton theld(e)r , Richard Phipps, William Townsend, Wendover Lowndes, Thomas Goodwyn, Thomas Oakeley, William Illing, Emanuel Ward, John Illing, John Barton, Nicholas Wyatt and John Stevens

1 To the first Article wee say, that Mr William Rushton was Steward of the said Mannor for about the space of two yeares in the Twelve yeares the said Article menc(i)oned, and after him Mr Oliver Lawrence untill about the yeare one thousand six hundred and Fiftie and five and after him Mr Francis Clarke untill our Lady day last past, and that Mr Peter Figge was Bailiff of the said Mannor untill the s(ai)d yeare of Our Lord one thousand six hundred Fiftie & five, or thereabouts, and that Richard Hodgkins Robert Bowden and Francis Woodcock, the then reputed Lords of the said Mannor, or some of them did exercise the Employment of Bailiffe or Bailiffe for the said Mannor from about one thousand six hundred Fiftie five until about our Lady day last past, and that the said Mr Figg did Collect and gather the Quitt rents of and belonginge to the said Mannor for the space of Five yeares or thereabouts of the said Twelve yeares the said Article menc(i)oned, and that the said Richard Hodgkins did Collect and gather the same for the space of Two yeares or thereabouts, and Daniell Seare and John Hogson about the space of three yeares, and since the said Richard Hodgkins Robert Bowden and Francis Woodcocke or some or one of them gathered the same

2 To the second Article wee say, that we knowe not any person or persons that have any Court rolles, Rentalls or Evidences belonginge to the said Mannor but wee suspect that the Court rolls and Rentalls belonging to the sames are in the hands of Richard Hodgkins of Winslowe Robert Bowden of Grambowre, Francis Woodcocke of great Horwood, and Mr Francis Clarke of Barkhamsted in the County of Hertford some or one of them 

3 To the third Article wee say, That ye said Mannor doth bound upon Swanborne Northmarston Fullbrooke East Cleydon Addington great Horwood Whaddon Chase and Mursley, but whether the said Mannor of Winslow doth extend itselfe into any other Mannor or any other Mannor doth extend into the said Mannor of Winslowe, wee know not

4 To the fourth Article wee say, That there is belonging to the said Mannor a Messuage or House called Mote Hall scituate nere the Markett place of Winslowe aforesaid, and is nowe in the Occupation of one William Norman

5 To the Fifth Article wee say, That wee referre ourselves to our Answere un\to/ the 18th Article

6 To the sixth Article wee say, that there are Freehold(er)s in Winslowe Mannor Edmund Paxon, and in Little Horwood John Addams John Grange William Illing William Smyth, Thomas Ward Henry Smith, John Palladine, John Carter, William Bailey Richard Denby and no more to our Knowledge but what the Quantities of theire Lands are we knowe not, neither doe wee knowe what Quitt rents they pay but referr it to the Rentalls of the said Mannor

7 To the seventh Article wee say, that wee are not now able to sett downe the p(ar)ticular Copiehold(er)s and Rents that to every one is belonginge otherwise then by veiw of our Copies

8,9,10 & 11 To the Eighth, Nineth, Tenth and Eleaventh Articles wee say, That wee doe not knowe of any reliefes due or payable to the Lord of this Mannor upon the death or alienac(i)on of any Copiehold(er)s and further say that upon the death of every Copiehold(e)r or inheritance, there is due to the Lord a Harriott being the best Good within the said Mannor and in case there be no Good then the Lord shall have either the best Tree or One Land of Corne and if there be two or three Joint Tenants of a Copiehold of Inheritance, noe Herryott is due or Answerable till the death of the last Tenant, and that no Herryott is due to the Lord upon the death of a Copiehold(e)r for life or terme of yeares, and that upon every alianac(i)on of a Copiehold(e)rs whole estate there is due to the Lord a Herryott being the best Good of the Seller, and if any Copieholder alien all his Copiehold Land excepting a halfe acre or rood noe Herriott is due and that noe Herriott can be seized by the Lord out of the said Mannor And upon every admittance there is due to the Lord for a Fine as followeth, that is to say for a Messuage or Cottage, and und(e)r three acres of Land only five shillings, and for a Messuage or Cottage, and three acres of Land only six shillings, in respect of the Land and the Messuage is cast in, and for every Yard Lard three pounds, and soe port(i)onable to a quarter of a Yard Land and for all broken Lands two shillings for every acre, and for every Messuage or Cottage without Land Five shillings, and that the Custome of the said Mannors, that although any Copyhold(e)r pull downe or let goe to ruin his buildings Messuages or Tenements upon his Copiehold estates yet there is noe forfeiture to the Lord, neither is there forfeiture for any Waste or felling of Timber or Trees, but if any Copiehold(e)r for life or Tenant for yeares doe suffer waste in houses or buildings or felling timber, hee forfeits his estate to the next in Reverc(i)on and not to the Lord.

12, 13, 14 To the 12th 13th. 14th  Articles Wee say Wee knowe none such

15 To the fifteenth Article wee say, that the Fines Issues Amerciam(en)ts p(er)quisits of Courte herriotts Waifes and streyes Fellons Goods, and other Casualties wh(i)ch did yearely accrewe to the Lord within the said Mannor were usually  collected by the Bailiffes of the said Mannor for the time being, but what the yearly value thereof is, wee knowe not, but we conceave that the same will plainly appeare by the Court rolles

16 To the sixteenth Article there is a Mault Mill in the said Mannor in the occupation of Hugh Seaton the Younger, and that hee hath a Lease thereof, from the former Lords of the Mannor for certaine Hundreds of yeares to come, as wee are informed, but wee doe not knowe of any Suite or Service the Tenants owe to the same, and there is one Faire within the said Mannor yearly on the Tenth day of August, and that there is for Toll due to the Lord foure pence apeece for horses two pence for each Cowe or Bullock, eight pence a score for sheepe, and a penny for a hogg from all persons except the Tenants of the said Mannor and that the same have bene collected from time to time by the Bailiffe of the said Mannor for the time being, For Ferries wee have none within the said Mannor

17 To the seventeenth Article wee say that the Lord of the said Mannor hath the Royaltie of Fishinge, hawkinge hunting and Fowleing within the said Mannor, but they doe not knowe whoe doth occupie the same, or for what terme, and the Lord hath warren within the Com(m)on of Little Horwood called Shucklowe Warren, and that the same is within the occupac(i)on of one Mr Manley

18 To the Eighteenth wee say that there is an Impropriac(i)on of the Church & Tithes of Winslowe, but whether it belonge to this Mannor, they knowe not, and that there is a Close called the Parsonage Close, and there is a Barne in ye same, and parte of the said Barne is lately converted to a Tenem(en)t and that the Parishioners of Winslowe aforesaid have the Tithes Tenement & Close in occupac(i)on of the Graunt of the said noble Duke of Buckingham, but of any Advowsans Patronages Free Gifts or Presentac(i)ons or Parsonages Viccaridges or Chappells belonging withis Mannor they knowe not.

19 [first part to follow]
And a headland peece of the said Mannor that is in certaine Feoffees for the use of the Poore of the said parish of Winslowe, and alsoe two other Cottages for the same use, and six acres and a halfe of Land for the use aforesaid and there hath bene usually payd by the Lord of the said Mannor to the Overseers of the Poore out of the Impropriac(i)on of Winslowe Foure shillings a Month And that there \are/ three halfe acres and one headland in Little Horwood for the use of the Church there, and that there are Foure Ridges in Granborowe for the use of the Church there, and three acres more there in Feoffees for the use of the Viccar there.

20 To the Twentieth Article wee say, that the Lord hath for Officers a Steward, a Bailiffe, but what Fees they have, or should have we knowe not.

21 To the One and Twentieth Article wee say, that wee doe not knowe of any Timber or Wood, the Lord hath upon any Demesnes or Copieholds of this Mannor except hee hath any in the Woods called the Abbotts Wood nor wee doe not knowe of any Quarries and Mines open or Covert of Stone Tyle, Slate, Cole, Tinn, or other Mettalls upon any the Demesnes or Copieholds of the said Mannor

[Latin] New copy examined by me.  W. Lane steward there

[signatures]
John Hogson
Emanuel Ward
John Barton
Richard Phypps His mark
Roger Worrall
Thomas Kirby His mark
Hugh Seaton
John Stevens
William Spooner
Benedict Holland
Nicholas Wiatt
William X Townesend
Benedict Holland
John Henly
John Illing
William Illing
Thomas Godwyn
John Henly
Wendover Lowndes

15th die Septembris 1718
[Latin]  In Chancery
James Selby sergeant at law and other complainants against William Lowndes esquire and other defendant(s)

[English] Memorand that this parchment
Writing marked (No (2) was shewed
Unto Thomas Montague John Henly
& Edward Lane Esq(uire) att the severall
tymes of theyr Exa(m)i(n)ac(i)ons as witnesses
in this Cause before us

Ambrose Eldridge
W(ilia)m Vaux
Edmund Dayrell

Copyright 17 January, 2017