Court Rolls, 17 May 1485

Herts RO, 40709

These Winslow court rolls are preserved as part of a set of court rolls for the St Albans manors. Unlike the Court Books, they are unedited and preserve all the entries for the year, including cases of assault. The text below is translated from Latin. It includes entries for Little Horwood and Granborough.

Wynslowe, view of frankpledge, held on the Tuesday before Whitsun in the second year of the reign of King Richard III. John Rothesbury cellarer.

Chief pledges:
Walter Palmer, William Robyns, William Pygott
Richard Thomlyn, Thomas Hardyng, Walter Taillor, John Wodman
John Davy, John Miller, John Thomlyn, Thomas Bley
Robert Elyot, Robert Elyot, William Myng, John Aukyns
John Worsop, Robert Lane, Thomas Sewell, John Boton
William Davy, William Stephen, Robert Pountys, Thomas Geffys

Common fine: 27s 8d.

Thomas Miller, John Northe, William Baker, Walter Adkyn, Richard Northe, Richard Robyns and Thomas Sompner were sworn as the king's tithingmen.

Bakers. William Elys, William George, William Wodeward, Richard Wylowes, Richard Elys, Thomas Hart and Richard Wyott are common bakers and broke the assize. Therefore amerced, etc.

Brewers. John Worsop, Isabel Reyner, Walter Palmer, Richard Wylowes, Agnes Meyng, William Pernell and Thomas Wever are common brewers and broke the assize. Therefore amerced, etc.

Butchers. William Robyns, William George and John Rous are common butchers and took excessive profit in selling meat. Therefore amerced, etc.

John Loksmyth made an assault on William Robyns Bocher with a stone and broke his head and drew blood, against the king's peace. Sureties Richard Wylowes and Robert Seylik, etc.

Thomas Power made an assault on Thomas Harberd with a hanger and drew blood, against the king's peace, etc.

William Dryver made an assault on William Chue with a stick and drew blood. Sureties Walter Palmer and Robert Kyott[?].

John Domynyk made an assault on John Hoggeston of Shipton and drew blood, against the peace, etc.

Robert Elyot is chosen to the office of constable and took the oath.

Wynslowe. Halimote held there, day and year above

Homage. All the chief pledges above were chosen for the homage of this court and having been sworn presented that:

Thomas Cowper of Horwode has died, who held in Shipton various lands and holdings. Heriot: a cow worth 6s 8d etc. [more about holdings in Horwood]

Richard Lane has died, who lying on his deathbed surrendered into the bailiff's hands a messuage and 9½ acres of land. The messuage is situated between the holding formerly Geoffrey Scot's and William Albyn's holding. The land lies in various parcels as set out in the court rolls of 6 Henry VI [1428; see WMCB p.508, where Richard Atte Lane inherited from his father Thomas]. Heriot: a cow with calf worth 8s. The lord granted the messuage and lands to Stephen Lane his son. Fine this time: 3s 4d.

Margaret, relict of William Smyth, widow, surrendered a messuage and half-virgate of land and 3½ acres of land formerly William Carpenter's and lately William Helpstrope's, except for 1½ acres, of which a half-acre lies at Naundiche and 1 acre at Longlanend and is headland. The lord granted them to William [sic] Palmer on the following condition: the aforesaid Walter [sic], his heirs and assignes will grant Margaret easement in a chmber in the tenement with free entry and exit during her life. Fine 40d. [See WMCB p.633: William and Margaret Smyth acquired the holding from William Jentylle in 1448]

David Taillor and Joan his wife, granddaughter of Robert Smyth, who was examined alone, surrendered for the benefit of Walter Palmer 1 acre of land lying in Wynslowe between the land of William Everisden on the north side and Richard Lane on the south side, for which he pays to the tenant of the virgate formerly Hugh Herry's which John Cordell lately held 3d a year, as set out in the court rolls of 19 Henry VI [1440; see WMCB p.601]. Likewise they surrendered for Walter's benefit 2½ acres of land lying in various parcels as set out in the court rolls of 26 Henry VI [1448; see WMCB p.632, when William Smyth acquired them]. Fine 12d. Likewise they surrendered for Walter's benefit 3 half-acres lately acquired from the tenure of Robert Adam as set out in the court rolls of 38 Henry VI [1460; see WMCB pp.707-8 when William Smyth Carpenter acquired them]. Fine 6d. Likewise they surrendered for Walter's benefit a half-acre from the tenure of William Smyth Carpenter as it lies in Shiptondene next to the Churchelonde as set out in the 38th year. Fine 4d. Likewise they surrendered for Walter's benefit a half-acre from the tenure of William Smyth Carpenter as it lies in Langlond between the land of Robert Adam and William Bayly, as set out in the 38th year. Fine 4d. All granted to Walter Palmer. He will pay 3d a year to the tenant of Hugh Herry's virgate which John Cordell lately held for 1 acre of land lately William Thomlyn's fee[?]. The fine amounts to 3s 2d.


Joan, widow of William Couper, surrendered a cottage formerly Matilda Salford's, afterwards William Terry's, lately Thomas Bloy's. Heriot: 8d in money. Granted to John Wodman. Fine: 8d. [see WMCB pp.701-2, 1459].

William Hawkyn surrendered a cottage which he took from the lord with a half-virgate of land formerly Robert Harry's, lately John Jeffes'. No heriot this time because he has other holdings. Granted to Robert Pygott and Isabel his wife. He will pay to the tenant of Isabel Broun's tenure 6d a year. Fine 15d. [see WMCB p.644, 1448, when it was held by John Jeffes]

Richard Perpont clerk after the death of Thomas Buwyn[?] surrendered a virgate of land formerly Thomas Broun's by the extent, lately Geoffrey Waryn's, called Colyers, of which John Wodman held the capital messuage. He also surrendered a messuage and virgate formerly Hugh Saleman's by the extent, lately the said Geoffrey's. Also a cottage formerly John Saleman's by the extent. Likewise a half-virgate from the demesne land called Burylond, lately John Grene's. Granted to Walter Coke and Denise his wife to hold for themselves and Walter's heirs. Fine 3s 4d. [The first three holdings were held by John and William Waryn in 1453 when John died; WMCB p.665. William Waryn and Agnes his wife acquired the Burylond holding in 1451; WMCB p.658.]


It was found by the homage that Thomas son of William Jankyn died 13 years ago or more without issue. At the time of his death he held as a villein a messuage and a half-virgate called Maynes, lately John Piers' and Juliana his wife's. And by prearrangement the messuage and half-virgate should revert after Thomas' death to William Jankyn and Joan his wife, Thomas' parents / relatives [parentibus]. Granted to them. Fine 6s 8d. [Thomas' will was proved in 1471, making William his executor.]

National Archives, CP40/893/1477d (Trinity Term 1485)

William Robyns also appears in this case from the Court of Common Pleas.

Buks.  John Coweley by his attorney put himself on the 4th day against William Robyns of Wynslowe in the said county “Bocher” on a plea that he should render to him six marks which he owed him & unjustly withheld etc.  And he [Robyns] did not come.  And as previously the sheriff was ordered to take him etc.  And the sheriff now reported that he was not found.  Therefore as numerous times let him be taken so that he is here 40 days from Michaelmas etc.

Copyright 17 May, 2021